Tuesday, February 23, 2010

Thailand: Ayutthaya city(大城)

大城(阿瑜陀耶)Ayutthaya city, 是泰國「鄭王朝」時期(Thonburi Kingdom)的首都,位在泰國中部,自西元1350年至西元 1767年,曾為泰國第二個首都,有四百多年的輝煌歷史,在當時是最大最富裕的城市。 1766年華人血統的泰王鄭昭(King Taksin)也是在此驅逐緬人,是華人在泰國歷史記憶上的聚焦點,也是當今泰國境內大大小小有華人社區之城鎮的一個小縮影。本研究擬以歷史人類學方法對大城(阿瑜陀耶)一小社區進行田野調查研究,重現早期華人出洋而定居的生活史,探討當時促成與協助華人遷移的時局與機制,以重建多重架構的歷史與生活樣態,討論本地客家人與潮州人的關係錯綜,其中討論潮客關係與隱性族群的問題,也將討論泰國華人的經濟社會生活,以及文化傳承的代間差距。就歷史與集體記憶而言,這一小社區也呈現了東南亞華人之多重架構的歷史認同。

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Ayutthaya city(full name Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, พระนครศรีอยุธยา), is the capital of Ayutthaya province in Thailand. Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya (or Ayutthaya Province, พระนครศรีอยุธยา), is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Ang Thong, Lop Buri, Saraburi, Pathum Thani, Nonthaburi, Nakhon Pathom and Suphan Buri.

It is 85 km north of Bangkok. Ayutthaya is an island at the confluence of three rivers: the Chao Phraya river(แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา), the Lopburi river(ลพบุรี) and the Pa Sak river(แม่น้ำป่าสัก). As the train station is at the east side off the island, most visitors will need to cross the river by ferry boat. Navigating your way around the island is not particularly hard: U Thong Rd is a ring road that circumvents the island completely. Most temple ruins can be found at the north-west of the island, while accommodation and nightlife is clustered around the north-east. As non-Siamese peoples were not allowed to live inside the city walls, the sights from foreign nations can be found outside of the island

The city was founded in 1350 by King U-Thong(สมเด็จพระเจ้าอู่ทอง) , who went there to escape a smallpox outbreak in Lop Buri and proclaimed it the capital of his kingdom, often referred to as the Ayutthaya kingdom or Siam. It is estimated that Ayutthaya by the year 1600 CE had a population of about 300,000, with the population perhaps reaching 1,000,000 around 1700 CE, making it one of the world's largest cities at that time.

In 1767 the city was destroyed by the Burmese army, resulting in the collapse of the kingdom. The ruins of the old city now form the Ayutthaya historical park, which is recognized internationally as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city was refounded a few kilometers to the east.

Ayutthaya was named after the city of Ayodhya in India, the birthplace of Rama in the Ramayana (Thai, Ramakien).

The ruins indicate that Ayutthaya was one of Southeast Asia's (and probably the world's) most prosperous cities in the 17th Century and beyond. Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Historical Park, a vast stretch of historical site in the heart of Ayutthaya city, has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since December 13, 1991.

There were three palaces in Ayutthaya: Grand Palace, Chantharakasem Palace (the Front Palace) and Wang Lang (the Rear Palace). In addition, there were many other palaces and buildings for royal visits located outside Ayutthaya, such as the palace at Bang Pa-In and Nakhon Luang Building at Nakhon Luang.

Ayutthaya is unique among the provinces of Thailand in that the district of its capital city is not called Amphoe Mueang [Ayutthaya], as the common scheme would suggest, but rather Amphoe Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya:

1. Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
2. Tha Ruea
3. Nakhon Luang
4. Bang Sai (บางไทร)
5. Bang Ban
6. Bang Pa-in
7. Bang Pahan
8. Phak Hai
9. Phachi
10. Lat Bua Luang
11. Wang Noi
12. Sena
13. Bang Sai (บางซ้าย)
14. Uthai
15. Maha Rat
16. Ban Phraek

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