Sunday, October 30, 2011

What happen to humanity in China?

Who is that little kid, YueYue?

A two-year-old girl who captured headlines and hearts all over the world after she was hit by two vans and left to die by 18 passersby has died. Local media is reporting that Yueyue (悦悦) died in the early hours of Friday morning after a week-long battle for life. Yueyue was struck by two separate vehicles in the southern Chinese city of Foshan last Thursday. Seven minutes after she had been pummeled by traffic, during which time several people witnessed the accident and did not help, a local refuse-collector picked her up and propped her against a sack of rice

Yueyue sadly passed away.....

The nation may be economically strong, but the moral and civic minded level of the Chinese have been going backward and did not match with the economic progress. We remember what happen in London recently, now it happen in China.

What happen to our human civilization? going backward at the internet era? when our heart become machine...... or just because of economic pursuit of money, the society become less human....everyone look like money making machine, and that is their only aim in life......

We can care for the pet dogs, love pet dogs; yet we have no time to love human...even a little child.....

It seems the country with great economic success, everything is valued with self interest; their manufactured foods, their railways, their buildings, their products, now even their responsibility for other human life provided I make money; and the corruptions, making things go worst. The normal people has changed, the law did not protect them for doing right, and now they are afraid to do the right thing.

What kind of society is this?......

Suddenly I remember Cultural Revolution; this is a different cultural revolution when the hearts of people go inhuman....during the cultural revolution, the people had no financial power but this time they have financial power. Yet a cultural transformation is taking place, a cultural change to the capitalist world of self interest....and every thing is valued by money, people become arrogant, addicted to showmanship of their riches , resulted in wastage of resources, environment pollution, and over extreme form of self interest capitalist.

Everything is like tofu, even the human hearts.....

I wonder if this is the signal for something , a signal for the change...

Will China lost the respect of the world, due to their own making?....the publicity in Time Square, New York will not help to improve their image....

The public image of a country will be adversely affected, and it is not a small matter. When a human life has no value in the society.....

It is a strong signal to the people, to the government.....something wrong somewhere, despite economic success....

It happen to Norway, it happen to London, and it is now happen in it a trend where human life is worthless?....

Monday, October 17, 2011


I was in Kuantan for more than 20 years

A peaceful place to stay

Until one day they start built chemical factories

and now rare earth related....

Remember the rare earth in Bukit Merah, sometime ago,

Mishibishi is quietly cleaning up, even until now...

Now the Lynas from Australia,

who is going to clean up next time?....

We may not know what is radioactive,

But we know the harmful effect,

just look at the rare earth mining in China,

and look back at recent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster,

they also tell them not to worry when they built,

But the worry come in 2011....

They say that is difference between atomic plant, rare earth plant,

We do not know the difference,

but we cannot trust radioactive things,

no matter what they say, they would not be there if thing happen...

but the residents will be there...

We just want simple living in peace,

yet they come,

they break our dream...

.... and now Mitsubishi is 10% owner of Lynas....


1. Mitsubishi Quietly Cleans Up Its Former Refinery,
2. Rare earth element,
3. Chronology of events in the Bukit Merah Asian Rare Earth development
4. Japanese Multinational Corporations and the Export of Pollution,The Case of Bukit Merah, by Fumitaka FURUOKA & May Chiun LO,
5. Bukit Merah survivor: Our tears have run dry,
6. Japan's Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group buys $324m stake in Lynas Corp,
7. Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster,

A Day Made of Glass...

If that is true, and turn into reality, that will be nice...

But I am worry, my careless wife may break all the glasswares,

Then, I need to pay for more replacement than enjoy life with glass...

May be a class to conduct how to handle glassware at the Idiots level to people who cannot work with glass...

Glass instead of Apple, anyone?....

Friday, October 14, 2011

The Last Emperor - Pui Yi (愛新覺羅溥仪)

Pui Yi(愛新覺羅溥仪, b 1906-d 1967)

Puyi (溥仪/溥儀) (7 February 1906 – 17 October 1967), of the Aisin Gioro(愛新覺羅) clan, was the last Emperor of China. He ruled China in two periods between 1908 and 1917, firstly as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) when he was only 2 years 10 months , ruled from 2 December 1908 – 12 February 1912 (3 years, 72 days), and nominally as a non-ruling puppet emperor for twelve days in 1917. He was the twelfth and final member of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over China. Between 1 March 1934 – 15 August 1945(11 years, 167 days) , he was the Kangde Emperor (康德皇帝) of Manchukuo. He is widely known as The Last Emperor (末代皇帝). Puyi lost his imperial title in 1924.

1908 The Child Emperor

Emperor at the age of 2, a child emperor...

Puyi's father, the 2nd Prince Chun(醇親王)or Zaifeng(愛新覺羅載沣, 1883-1951), served as a regent from 2 December 1908 until 6 December 1911 when Empress Dowager Longyu(隆裕皇后) or Empress Xiao Ding Jing (孝定景皇后) took over in the face of the Xinhai Revolution from 6 December 1911 – 12 February 1912.

1911 Xinhai Revolution and the end of Qing Dynasty -the last emperor

1911 – The Xinhai Revolution ended the Qing Dynasty. Pui Yi was the last emperor(1908-1912). Empress Dowager Longyu signed the "Act of Abdication of the Emperor of the Great Qing" (《清帝退位詔書》) on 12 February 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution, under a deal brokered by Yuan Shikai (the great general of the army Beiyang) with the imperial court in Beijing (formerly Peking) and the republicans in southern China. Signed with the new Republic of China, Puyi was to retain his imperial title and be treated by the government of the Republic with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. He and the imperial court were allowed to remain in the northern half of the Forbidden City (the Private Apartments) as well as in the Summer Palace. A hefty annual subsidy of 4 million silver dollars was granted by the Republic to the imperial household, although it was never fully paid and was abolished after just a few years.

1917 Manchu Restoration or Emperor Restoration Incident

The second time as Emperor,constitutional mornach for 12 days at the age of 10 years old kid....

1917- In 1917, the warlord general Zhang Xun (張勛), popular called pigtail general(辫帅) of Pigtail Army(辫子军), his soldiers all kept their "queue" or pigtails. Zhang Xun restored Puyi to his throne for twelve days from 1 July 1917 – 12 July 1917(12 days). Zhang ordered his army to keep their queues (long plaits or "pigtails") to display loyalty to the emperor. During those 12 days, one small bomb was dropped over the Forbidden City by a republican plane, causing minor damage. This is considered the first aerial bombardment ever in East Asia. The restoration failed due to extensive opposition across China, and the decisive intervention of another warlord general, Duan Qirui( 段祺瑞,1865-1936)

1924 Farewell to Forbidden City

On 5-11-1924, the last emperor Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City in Beijing by warlord Feng Yuxiang(冯玉祥/馮玉祥, 1882-1948), the Christian General. Feng imprisoned Zhili-leader and 3rd president Cao Kun(曹錕) of Republic of China

He installed the more liberal Huang Fu(黃郛,1883-1936), evicted the Last Emperor from the Forbidden City, and invited Sun Yat-sen to Beijing to resurrect the Republican government and reunify the country. Sun came to Beijing, despite illness and died there in April 1925.

Puyi spent a few days at the house of his father 2nd Prince Chun, and then temporarily resided in the Japanese embassy for a year and a half. In 1925, he moved to the "Quiet Garden Villa" in the Japanese Concession in Tianjin.

1932 Puppet Emperor of Manchukuo

He was the emperor for 3rd times from 1 March 1934 – 15 August 1945 (11 years, 167 days)

On 1 March 1932, Puyi was installed by the Japanese as the ruler of Manchukuo, considered by most historians as a puppet state of Imperial Japan, under the reign title Datong (大同). In 1934, he was officially crowned the emperor of Manchukuo under the reign title Kangde (康德). he was only 28 years old, the 3rd times as Emperor, but this time not for China, but Manchukuo, where his ancestry come from in North Eastern China.

At the end of World War II, Puyi was captured by the Soviet Red Army on 16 August 1945 while he was in an airplane fleeing to Japan. The Soviet army took him to the Siberian town of Chita. He lived in a sanatorium, but was later taken to Khabarovsk near the Chinese border.

In 1946, he testified at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo, detailing his resentment of how he had been treated by the Japanese.

After Chinese communists took over mainland China, Puyi was repatriated to China in 1949, spent ten years in a Fushun War Criminals Management Centre.

1959 A reformed man - a commoner

Puyi came to Beijing in 1959 with special permission from Chairman Mao Zedong and lived the next six months in an ordinary Beijing residence with his sister before being transferred to a government-sponsored hotel. He subsequently worked as an editor for the literary department of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, where his monthly salary was around 100 Yuan, an office in which he served from 1964 until his death in 1967.

Cultural Revolution 1966 - the end of last emperor of China

Mao began the Cultural Revolution in 1966, and the youth militia known as the Red Guards saw Puyi, who symbolized Imperial China, as an easy target of attack. Puyi was placed under protection by the local public security bureau, although his food rations, salary, and various luxuries, including his sofa and desk, were removed. Puyi became affected physically and emotionally. He died in Beijing of complications arising from kidney cancer and heart disease on 17 October 1967. Puyi's body was cremated. His ashes were first placed at the Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery, alongside those of other party and state dignitaries (before the establishment of the People's Republic of China this was the burial ground of Imperial concubines and eunuchs). In 1995, as a part of a commercial arrangement, Puyi's widow transferred his ashes to a new commercial cemetery in return for monetary support. The cemetery is located near the Western Qing Tombs (清西陵), 120 km (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, where four of the nine Qing emperors preceding him are interred, along with three empresses, and 69 princes, princesses, and imperial concubines.

In all his life, Pui Yi had been puppets for others, he was a emperor for the use of either the imperial family or political opportunists or Japanese militarists, never a time he was a real emperor. He has a dream after he grow up, to be a real emperor, 1932 was the year he was waiting for, a realized of his emperor dream. But it was also the dream that started the journey to another destination that few people want, a prison. From emperor to a prisoner, what a drastic change in life, and the psychological pressure on him.

He silenced himself for many years, surrounded only by plants in his garden and books in the library. He started to learn how to become a commoner. But fate was against his wishes, he was still an emperor, the last emperor. In 1966, come the Cultural Revolution, the political fanatic never give him a chance, and took the opportunity to end his self pride, and dug out his sad historical past. The mental and physical abuses was too much for him, now old age of 61 years old, he died in 1967, reported kidney cancer.....or political pressure....

Monday, October 10, 2011

Dr Sun Yat-sen & Taiwan


Taiwan or Formosa, is an island, of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. It is now ROC(Republic of China)after Chinese Civil War.

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Kingdom of Tungning(1661-1683)

1624, Dutch established commercial base in Taiwan.The Dutch made Taiwan a colony with its colonial capital at Tayoan City (present day Anping, Tainan).The Dutch military presence was concentrated at a stronghold called Castle Zeelandia.

In 1661, a Chinese fleet led by the Ming loyalist Cheng Ch'eng-kung (Zheng Chenggong鄭成功,1624-1662, known in the West as Koxinga) retreated from the mainland and landed on Luerhmen (鹿耳门),Taiwan. Cheng expelled the Dutch and established Taiwan as a base in his attempt to restore the Ming Dynasty. A pro-Ming Dynasty state, it was founded by Koxinga (also known as Zheng Chenggong) after the Ming government in mainland China was overtaken by the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty. Koxinga hoped to use the island to train military forces and use it as a base of operations for recapturing the mainland from the Manchus. He died shortly thereafter on 23/6/1662, Zheng Jing(鄭經)succeeded his father as the King of Tungning. Following death of Zheng Jing in 1681, the lack of an official heir meant rule of Taiwan would pass to his illegitimate son. This caused great division in the government and military powers, resulting in a exceptionally destructive struggle for succession.

Prince of Yanping (延平郡王), Ming Empire
- 1661-1662 Zheng Chenggong
King of Tungning
- 1662 - 1682 Zheng Jing
- 1682 - 1683 Zheng Keshuang

Qing dispatched their navy with Shi Lang(施琅) at the head, destroying the Zheng fleet at the Penghu Islands. In 1683 after the Battle of Penghu, Qing troops landed in Taiwan, Zheng Keshuang(鄭克塽)gave in to the Qing Dynasty's demand of surrender, and his kingdom was incorporated into the Qing Empire as part of Fujian province, ending two decades of rule by the Zheng family. Ironically, Shi Lang(施琅) was the captain of the naval fleet of Zheng Chenggong's father, Zheng Zhilong(鄭芝龍).

Taiwan under Qing Dynasty rule

From 1680 the Qing Dynasty ruled Taiwan as a prefecture and in 1875 divided the island into two prefectures, north and south. In 1887 the island was made into a separate Chinese province. Manchu ruled Taiwan from 1683 to 1895. It was part of Manchu empire(now China).

- 1885 - 1891 Liu Mingchuan
- 1894 - 1895 Tang Ching-sung

Japanese Occupation 1895-1945

Japan had sought to control Taiwan since 1592, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi began extending Japanese influence overseas. In 1609, the Tokugawa Shogunate sent Arima Harunobu on an exploratory mission. In 1616, Murayama Toan led an unsuccessful invasion of the island.

In 1871, an Okinawan vessel shipwrecked on the southern tip of Taiwan and the crew of fifty-four was beheaded by the Paiwan aborigines. The Ryūkyū Kingdom kept a tributary relationship with Great Qing Empire at the same time was subordinate to Satsuma Domain of Japan. When Japan sought compensation from Qing China, it was first rejected because Qing considered the incident an internal affair since Taiwan was a prefecture of Fujian Province of Qing and the Ryūkyū Kingdom was a tributary of Qing. When Japanese foreign minister Soejima Taneomi asked the compensation again claiming four of the victims were Japanese citizens from Okayama prefecture of Japan, Qing officials rejected the demand on the grounds that the "wild" and "unsubjugated" aboriginals (台灣生番/台湾生番) were outside its jurisdiction.The open renunciation of sovereignty led to a Japanese invasion of Taiwan. In 1874, an expeditionary force of three thousand troops was sent to the island. There were about thirty Taiwanese and 543 Japanese casualties

The Qing Dynasty was defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and Taiwan and Penghu were ceded in full sovereignty to the Empire of Japan. Inhabitants wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China. Very few Taiwanese saw this as feasible.

However, on 25 May 1895, a group of pro-Qing high officials proclaimed the Republic of Formosa to resist impending Japanese rule. Japanese forces entered the capital at Tainan and quelled this resistance on 21 October 1895. The first republic last only about 5 months. Taiwan was under the control of Japanese empire for 50 years from 1895 to 1945. Taiwan under Empire of Japan rule ended after it lost World War II and signed the Instrument of Surrender of Japan on 14 August 1945.

From Manchu to Japanese occupation, there were uprisings and opposition movement in Taiwan. As for Manchu, Taiwanese Han were fighting for the reinstate of the Ming rule, in line with the new direction in mainland China. The Tiandi Hui was strong and inspired by Taiping Rebellion, and the appeal by reformist and revolutionists. There was no Taiwan independence movement. As for opposition to Japanese rule, it had been uprising initially by military way, but it later developed into more civilian action to oppose the Japanese rule, and communists begin to penetrate the island. They voices for self rule become stronger. The opposition was to be in line with the mainland China, many Taiwanese participated in uprising in mainland China to overthrow Manchu. However after 1911 when Manchu was overthrow, the period of political chaos by warlords and later Japanese militarists followed, Taiwanese Hans also participate actively in the resistance to protect their ancestry land. They are strongly behind Dr Sun for revolution, and later against Japanese invasion of China.

However after 50 years of Japanese rule in Taiwan, there were significant number of Taiwanese, who had been culturally assimilated, were royal to Japan, and joined their arm forces during the WW2, including the ex-president Lee Teng Hui.

Dr Sun Yat-sen and Taiwan

In 1894, Dr Sun was in Tianjin, together with Lu Haodong(陸皓東, 1868-1895) to sent a petition to Li Hongzhang(李鸿章, 1823-1901), the Viceroy of Zhili and Minister of Beiyang. Li had no time to look at the petition, as First Sino Japanese War(1894 -1895) broke up. Beiyang fleets were defeated by the Japanese navy. Li Hongzhang was the one who signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki(下関条約) "in perpetuity". It is also known as Treaty of Maguan(马关条约). It was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing Empire of China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. The peace conference took place from March 20 to April 17, 1895.

At the peace conference between Imperial Japan and Qing Dynasty, Li Hongzhang and Li Jingfang(李經方,1855?-1934), the ambassadors at the negotiation desk of Qing Dynasty, originally did not plan to split Taiwan away from the Mainland because they also realised Taiwan’s great location for trading with the West. Therefore, even though Qing Dynasty had lost wars against Britain and France in the 19th century, Emperor of Qing was serious to keep Taiwan under its control. On 20th March 1895, at Sunpanro (春帆楼) in Shimonoseki in Japan, 1-month-long peace conference had started. Li stated about Taiwan that, ‘Taiwan is already independent enough, and impossible to give other country (台湾已立一行省、不能送給他国).

Before the treaty was signed, Li Hongzhang was attacked by a right-wing Japanese extremist on March 24 1895: he was fired at and wounded on his way back to his lodgings at Injoji temple. The public outcry aroused by the assassination attempt caused the Japanese to temper their demands and agree to a temporary armistice. The conference was temporarily adjourned and resumed on April 10 1895.

It was too late for China, as she has no political power to bargain with military strong Japan. The treaty was drafted with John W. Foster, former American Secretary of State, advising the Qing Dynasty. It was signed on 17th April 1895 by Count Ito Hirobumi and Viscount Mutsu Munemitsu for the Emperor of Japan and Li Hongzhang and Li Jingfang on behalf of the Emperor of China.

Article 1: China recognizes definitively the full and complete independence and autonomy of Korea, and, in consequence, the payment of tribute and the performance of ceremonies and formalities by Korea to China, that are in derogation of such independence and autonomy, shall wholly cease for the future.
Articles 2 & 3: China cedes to Japan in perpetuity and full sovereignty of the Penghu group, Taiwan and the eastern portion of the bay of Liaodong Peninsula together with all fortifications, arsenals and public property.
Article 4: China agrees to pay to Japan as a war indemnity the sum of 200,000,000 Kuping taels
Article 6: China opens Shashih, Chungking, Soochow and Hangchow to Japan. Moreover, China is to grant Japan most-favored-nation treatment.

It was an unfair treaty to China; Korea was taken away from China's sphere of influence and colonized by Japan, and Japan gained Penanghu & Taiwan in perpetuity. It was a peace treaty for China to end the war under pressure.

General Zuo Zongtang(左宗棠, 1812-1885), an equally famous but more respected Chinese military leader, accused Li Hongzhang of being a traitor, and predicted that Li will be hated for thousand years(“李鴻章誤盡蒼生,將落個千古罵名”). It was time Qing Empire need to reform or end.....uprisings followed...

The Hsing Chung Hui (兴中会), literally means the Revive China Society or the Society for Regenerating China, was founded in Honolulu, Republic of Hawaii, by Dr. Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities against Manchu. It was formed during the First Sino-Japanese War after a string of Chinese military defeats exposed Qing corruption and incompetence, and considered as national humiliation.

In spring 1895, the Hsing Chung Hui (兴中会), which was based in Hong Kong, planned the first Guangzhou Uprising. Lu Haodong was tasked with designing the revolutionaries' flag. On 26 October 1895, Yang Quyun(楊衢雲) and Sun Yat-sen led Zhen Shiliang(鄭士良, 1863-1901) and Lu Haodong(陸皓東) to Guangzhou, preparing to capture Guangzhou in one strike. However, the details of their plans were leaked to the government. The Qing Government began to arrest revolutionaries, including Lu Haodong, who was later executed. The first Guangzhou uprising was admittedly a failure. Sun Yat-sen and Yang Quyun were wanted by the Qing Government. Under the pressure from Qing Government, the government of Hong Kong forbade these two men to enter the territory for five years. Sun Yat-sen went into exile in Japan together with Chen Shao Bai(陳少白).

Chen Shao Bai went to Taiwan twice and established the Taipei branch of Hsing Chung Hui (兴中会)in Mid November 1897. He wins the support of Wu Wen-Siu (吳文秀), Chao Man-chao (趙滿朝) and Rong Qi-nien (容祺年), among others, and sets up a branch of the society in Taipei.

Dr Sun's visit to Taiwan
Between 1900 and 1918 Dr. Sun Yat-sen went to Taiwan three times. His first visit there was for the preparation for the Huichou Uprising(惠州起義). His last visit was in 1924, on the way to Beijing, North China via Keelung. All together, he visited Taiwan 4 times, this revealed that Taiwan is important in Dr Sun's mind .

1900 The first visit to Taiwan

In 1900, the Boxer Rebellion unfolded in China, and the north was in anarchy. The revolutionaries, therefore, decided to prepare for a military uprising. In June, Sun Yat-sen along with Zhen Sholiang, Chen Shaobai, Yang Quyun, and several Japanese people, such as Miyazaki Toten, Heiyama Shu, and Ryōhei Uchida, arrived in Hong Kong from Yokohama, but the British authorities refused to admit them. With the support of a Japanese organization Black Dragon Society(日本黑龍會), Sun Yat-sen went to Taiwan via Shimonoseki(馬關)on September 25,1900. He arrived at Keelong on 28-9-1900, then to Taipei. After meeting with Taiwan's Japanese governor Kodama Gentarō(兒玉源太郎,1898-02-26 to 1906-04-14), he gained the governor's promise that Japanese officers would support an uprising in Guangzhou. Kodama Gentaro, Japanese viceroy of Taiwan asked Goto Shimpei, the Japanese official in charge of civil affairs on the island, to contact Sun Yat-sen to offer help. As a result, Sun Yat-sen established a command center for the uprising at a place near today’s Changsha Street. More Taiwanese joined the movement.

Dr. Sun’s plan to direct the national revolution from Taiwan was frustrated as pro-Manchu cabinet came to power in Japan, Huang said, yet in his four visits to this island, Dr. Sun planted seeds of hope in the hearts of the Taiwanese people and tied together the anti-Japanese movement on Taiwan and the national revolutionary movement on the mainland

On October 8, Sun Yat-sen ordered Zhen Shiliang(鄭士良) and others to launch an uprising in Huizhou Sanzhoutian(惠州三洲田), also known as the Huizhou Uprising or Genji Uprising. The revolutionary army initially numbered 20,000 men, but the Japanese officers changed their minds and refused to support the revolution, despite the Japanese governor's promise. This uprising therefore also failed. Revolutionaries, such as Shi Jian and Yamada Ryusei, were killed as a result. Sun Yat-sen was deported from Taiwan back to Japan.

Growth of Tong menghui in Taiwan

In 1910, Wang Chao-pei(王兆培), a member of the Fujian branch of the Revolutionary Alliance, the successor organization to the Revive China Society, went to Taiwan to engage in organizational work. While studying at the Taipei Medical School, he secretly recruited Weng Chun-ming(翁俊明), Chiang Wei-shui(蔣渭水), Tu Tsung-ming(杜聰明) and others as alliance members. Weng served as liaison director in charge of developing the society’s chapter in Taiwan.

In the following year, the Revolutionary Alliance staged the 329 Guangzhou Uprising (the Huanghuagang Uprising). In Taiwan, Tainan’s Hsu Tsan-yuan(許贊元) and Miaoli’s Luo Fu-hsing(羅福星) also took part in the uprising. Later, members of Taiwan’s elites, such as Lien Heng (連橫) and Lai He (賴和), joined the alliance, which saw its Taiwanese membership grow to 76.

After Formation of Republic Of China in 1911

The success of the 1911 Xinhai Revolution and the consequent establishment of the Republic of China greatly encouraged people in Taiwan, sparking a surge of anti-Japanese sentiment. This was attested, for example, by the 1913 Miaoli Incident involving Luo Fu-hsing and the 1915 Tapani Incident, a large-scale uprising led by Yu Ching-fang(余清芳). Such activities were covertly supported by Lin Tsu-mi(林祖密), a member of an influential family in Taichung, who subsequently became a Sun “disciple” and joined in the work of the Constitutional Protection Movement in mainland China

1913 The 2nd Visit to Taiwan

1912- On August 25, 1912, the Kuomintang (國民黨)was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Beijing, where the Revolutionary Alliance(Tongmenhui) and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections. Sun, the then Premier of the ROC, was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing(1874-1916) as his deputy.

The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the KMT on a democratic socialist platform in favor of a constitutional parliamentary democracy. The party was opposed to constitutional monarchists and sought to check the power of Yuan. The Kuomintang won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly in December 1912.

The first parliamentary election in February 1913. , which then convened the National Assembly of the Republic of China for the first time on April 8. The Kuomintang won majority of the seats, and Song Jiaoren was designated to form the cabinet.

Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions and had parliamentary leader Song Jiaoren assassinated in Shanghai in 1913. Members of the KMT led by Sun Yat-sen staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, and failed.

After failing the Second Revolution, Dr. Sun Yat-sen, in the company of Mr. Hu Han-min(胡漢民, 1879-1936)and other revolutionary leaders, left Shanghai by German Vessel MS York(德国轮船约克号) on 2/8/1913. Arrived in Mawei(马尾), Fukien Province on 3rd August on his way from Shanghai to Kwangtung Province, planning to launch another offensive to overthrow Yuan Shih-kai. Upon learning of the changed situation in Kwangtung, he left Mawei for Keelung, Taipei on 4/8/1913 by Fushun Maru(抚顺丸) for a second visit, instead of proceeding to Canton.". He arrived at Taipei on 5-8-1913 with Hu Hanmin.

Dr. Sun Yat-sen stayed at the Hotel Umeyashaki(梅屋敷旅馆) operated by a Japanese individual in the then Omari Machi (at the intersection of the now Chung Shan North Road, Sec. 1 and Peiping West Street). During his stay there, he wrote two Chinese characters, "Po Ai (Universal Love)," for Sogo Daiwa, the owner of the hotel, and another two characters, "Tung Jen (Fellowman)," for Daiwa's younger brother, Goichiro Fujii, as souvenirs. Hotel Umeyashaki is now Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall. They only stayed in Taiwan for 10 hours, secretly met the early members of Tongmenhui. Dr Sun met Dr Weng Junming(翁俊明, 1893-1943)the first Taiwan member of Tongmenhui, Dr Jiang Weishui(蒋渭水, 1891-1931)popularly known as Taiwan's Sun Yat-sen, Luo Fuxing (罗福星, 1886-1914)who participated in Huanghuakang Uprising、and Liao Jinping(廖进平,1895-1947), who financially supported the uprisings.

Liao Chin-ping(廖進平) presented Dr Sun with a donation of 60,000 Japanese yen, and Sun reciprocated with a bottle of whiskey.

Dissatisfied with Yuan Shi-kai’s malfeasance, Weng Chun-ming, Tu Tsung-ming and other Alliance members slipped into Beijing intent upon exacting revenge by introducing deadly bacteria into Yuan’s water supply. Although the plot failed, it clearly evidenced the sympathy of Taiwan compatriots for the national revolution spearheaded by Sun.

Hwang Xing was also waiting for Shizuoka Maru to Singapore or USA.

Then Dr Sun took Japanese vessel Shinano Maru(信浓丸) on 5/8/1913 from Keelung to Mojiko(門司港), Japan. Arrived at Kobe on the 9th, and Tokyo on 18th.

Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the Kuomintang from the parliament. Yuan dissolved the KMT in November (whose members had largely fled into exile in Japan) and dismissed the parliament early in 1914.

Dr. Sun’s plan to direct the national revolution from Taiwan was frustrated as pro-Manchu cabinet came to power in Japan. Sun Yat-sen was back in Japan and would not see China again until after the death of Yuan in 1916

1918 The 3rd Visit to Taiwan

On July 1917, Sun Yat-sen arrived in Guangzhou from Shanghai, and telegram the original members of parliament in Peking to come to Guangzhou and re-established a new government. The Naval Minister Cheng Biguang(程璧光,1861-1918)conducted nine ships to support Sun Yat-sen and arrived Guangzhou on July 22.

On August 25, around 100 original members of parliament convened a conference in Guangzhou and passed the resolution on establishing a military government in Guangzhou to protect the Provisional Constitution. The military government consisted of a generalissimo and three field marshals to exercise the administrative rights of the Republic of China.

On September 1, 91 members in the Guangzhou parliament voted, and 84 of them voted Sun Yat-sen as the generalissimo. Then they selected the leaders of the National Protection War (护国战争/護國戰爭,1915-1916)or anti-Monarchy War, Tang Jiyao(唐继尧/唐繼堯) of the Yunnan clique and Lu Rongting(陆荣廷, 1856-1927) of the Old Guangxi clique as marshals, Wu Tingfang(伍廷芳, 1842-1922)as the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Tang Shaoyi(唐紹儀, 1862-1938) as the Minister of Finance (abstained), Cheng Biguang(程璧光) as the Naval Minister, and Hu Hanmin as the Minister of Communications. Sun Yat-sen inaugurated on September 10, and appointed Li Liejun (李烈钧)as the Chief of Staff, Li Fulin(李福林) as the Commander of the Guards, Xu Chongzhi(許崇智, 1887 - 1965)as staff officer and Chen Jiongming(陳炯明) as the Commander of the First Army.

After the establishment of the Guangzhou Military Government, the north and the south of China were in confrontation. Among the supporters of Guangzhou Government, the militants in Guangxi and Yunnan were superior in strength. Hunan's Tan Yanxi(譚延闓,1880-1930), Zhao Tihuan and Cheng Chieng also supporting the Constitutional Protection Movement. With the support of Lu Rongting(陆荣廷)and the Guangxi Army, the Constitutional Protection Army defeated Duan Qirui(段祺瑞)'s assault in November. Duan resigned as the North's prime minister as a result, leaving the post to Feng Guozhang(馮國璋, 1859-1919). The north and the south were in a temporary armistice.

The Constitutional Protection Movement(护法运动, 1917-1922) launched by the Military Government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou on September 10, 1917, was intended to "protect" this provisional constitution.

During 1918, Cheng Biguang turned his position toward Guangxi clique, and he was assassinated. The Extraordinary Session of Parliament was controlled by the Old Guangxi clique(舊桂系), and was restructured on May 1918 in which the generalissimo was replaced by a committee of seven executives consisting of Sun, Tang Shaoyi, Wu Tingfang, and Tang Jiyao on one side and Lu Rongting, Cen Chunxuan(岑春煊), and Lin Baoyi(林葆怿, 1863-1927) on the other.

Feeling marginalized, Sun Yat-sen resigned as the generalissimo, and left Guangzhou to Shanghai. The Guangzhou Military Government is now headed by the Cen Chunxuan(岑春煊), the chief executive. Wu Tingfang's election as Guangdong's governor was nullified by Lu Rongting.

ON 1/6/1918, from Guangzhou by Suzhou Maru(苏州丸) to Swatow with Hu Han-min(胡漢民)、Tai Chi-tao(戴季陶,1891-1949)then by Amakusa Maru(天草丸)to Keelung and arrived Taipei the next day on 7th June. The Japanese authority in Taiwan did not allow him to land at Taiwan, but allowed supporters and members to meet him on board the ship. Dr Sun only stay one night at the port. He left again after one hour with Shinano Maru to Kobe, Japan.

1924 The 4th visit

Puyi, the last emperor was expelled from the Forbidden City in Beijing in 1924 by warlord Feng Yuxiang. Feng Yuxiang , popularly known as Christian General, who even named his army, Nationalist Army. General Feng invited Dr Sun to Beijing.

On November 10, 1924, Sun traveled north to Tianjin and delivered a speech to suggest a gathering for a "National conference" for the Chinese people. It called for the end of warlord rules and the abolition of all unequal treaties with the Western powers. Two days later, he traveled to Beijing to discuss the future of the country, despite his deteriorating health and the ongoing civil war of the warlords.

Dr Sun visited Keelung on 13-11-1924, his way to North China, Beijing. The visit was brief and may be just a stop on the way to Kobe, Japan, without landing in Taiwan.

On November 28, 1924 Sun traveled to Japan and gave a speech on Pan-Asianism at Kobe, Japan.

This was the last trip to Taiwan. He passed away in 1925 at Beijing due to liver cancer. Sun died on March 12, 1925 at the age of 58 at the Rockefeller Hospital in Beijing.

Keenly aware of the suffering his Taiwan brethren under Japanese colonization, on his deathbed Sun repeatedly reminded his comrade Tai Chi-tao(戴季陶) that until Taiwan had been restored to China, three demands should be made upon Japan, the most important of which was to grant Taiwan and Korea self-governance and free the people of Taiwan. In Dr Sun's mind while he was sick, he still remember the unification of Taiwan with China.

Dr. Sun Yat-sen dies in Beijing. Taiwanese students Hong Yan-chiu (洪炎秋, 1899-1980), Ye Xian-yu (蘇薌雨, 1902-1986) and other student representatives deliver an elegy to Dr. Sun Yat-sen: “Who can lead the three million Taiwanese people now that they have lost a great man? Our generation will carry on the uncompleted work of our motherland” (三百萬臺灣剛醒同胞唯先生何人領導,四十年祖國未竟事業舍我輩其誰分擔).

Chiang Wei-shui(蔣渭水)and Lin Hsien-tang(林獻堂) joined with other Taiwanese to establish the Taiwanese Cultural Association(台灣文化協會)on 17-10-1921,which was founded by Chiang Wei-shui in Dadaocheng, Taipei, and the Taiwan People’s Party(臺灣民眾黨), Taiwan's first political party on 10-7-1927, continue Dr Sun Yat-sen’s call for the recovery of Taiwan. Ironically many of the early Taiwan political activists were doctors, like Dr Sun.

The rule by Japanese occupation and acculturation in 50 years of their occupation, developed a group of Japanese friendly community, who are willing to accept Japanese culture, even changed their names. After 1915, armed resistance against the Japanese colonial government nearly ceased. Instead, spontaneous social movements became popular. The Taiwanese people organized various modern political, cultural and social clubs, adopting political consciousness with clear intentions to unite people with sympathetic sensibilities.

The formal surrender occurred on the morning of October 25, 1945 in Taipei City Hall (modern Zhongshan Hall). The Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan formally surrendered to Chen Yi representing the Commander in Chief of the Chinese Theatre. On the same day, the Office of the Chief Executive began functioning from the building which now houses the ROC Executive Yuan. The occupation was finally over, but many still remember fondly of Japanese Occupation era. This is the group who are strongest supporter in Taiwan independence.

The entry of General Chiang Kai-sheh and their forces, created political pressure to the locals, especially after 228 incident, where 20,000 t0 30,000 civilian were killed, many local intellectuals and politician. The political resentment and anger developed towards the KMT military government, but have no power to voice and act. The pressure suddenly released when democracy opened the doors....the main root cause for independence from KMT rule, and later Taiwan independence.

This was the dilemma of Taiwan, they suddenly lost their identification,and forgot Dr Sun, and their ancestry roots.......may be the culture of their ancestry land is not progressive enough for a modern Taiwan. A political move for independence from their ancestry land....a political and cultural dichotomy in Taiwan....politically and culturally, China was divided....

Taiwan was marginalized historically and politically by Manchu, even KMT and Communists. They did not see the Taiwan island when compared it with the large mainland. To the politician, the small island is insignificant, and looked lightly at the territorial and political issue of the island. This was great mistake by Manchu, KMT in the past. This weaken Chinese bargaining power in international border dispute, and it created opportunity for the global opportunists to manipulate on the problem. USA even milked out the cash from the economically strong Taiwan for their arms deals. The discovery of oil fields in the South China Sea will see more political movement in the region, and complicated the strait relationship of mainland China and Taiwan.

When you see India, Philippines, Vietnam, Japan and USA suddenly gear up their military and political activities in the region, it is sign for worry .....for Taiwan and mainland China....and can they forget about Dr Sun Yat-sen and unification? .....Strait relationship after 100 years of Xinhai Revolution is now facing tough challenge....

Suggested readings:
1. 913年8月5日孫逸仙與胡漢民搭乘「撫順丸」從馬尾抵達基隆下榻台北御成町「梅屋敷」旅館,

Death of Dr Sun Yat-sen

Journey to Beijing

On 5-11-1924, the last emperor Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City in Beijing by warlord Feng Yuxiang(冯玉祥/馮玉祥, 1882-1948), the Christian General. Feng imprisoned Zhili-leader and 3rd president Cao Kun(曹錕) of Republic of China, During a war against Zhang Zuolin(张作霖) in October 1924, Cao was betrayed and imprisoned by his General Feng Yuxiang in the Beijing coup. Feng occupied Beijing and forced Cao to resign. His brother, Cao Rui (曹叡), committed suicide while under house arrest. Cao Kun was released two years later as a goodwill gesture by Feng to Wu Peifu(吴佩孚) or "Jade Marshall" (玉帥).

He installed the more liberal Huang Fu(黃郛,1883-1936), evicted the Last Emperor from the Forbidden City, and invited Sun Yat-sen to Beijing to resurrect the Republican government and reunify the country.

Following his expulsion from the Forbidden City, Puyi spent a few days at the house of his father 2nd Prince Chun, and then temporarily resided in the Japanese embassy for a year and a half. In 1925, he moved to the "Quiet Garden Villa" in the Japanese Concession in Tianjin.

While Puiyi was expelled from Forbidden City, and resided at Japanese embassy at Tianjin, Dr Sun Yat-sen was giving a speech at Tianjin. I do not know did they ever met? even at the cross point of their life at Tianjin.....

1924- On November 10, 1924, Sun traveled north to Tianjin and delivered a speech to suggest a gathering for a "National conference" for the Chinese people. It called for the end of warlord rules and the abolition of all unequal treaties with the Western powers. Two days later, he traveled to Beijing to discuss the future of the country, despite his deteriorating health and the ongoing civil war of the warlords.

On November 28, 1924 Sun traveled to Japan and gave a speech on Pan-Asianism at Kobe, Japan.

1925- Sun came to Beijing, despite illness and died of liver cancer on March 12, 1925 at the age of 58. He died at the Rockefeller Hospital in Beijing. In keeping with common Chinese practice, his remains were placed in the Green Cloud Monastery, a Buddhist shrine in the Western Hills a few miles outside of Beijing.

On April 23, 1929, the Chinese government appointed He Yingqin(何应钦/何應欽, 1890-1987) to be in charge of laying Dr. Sun to rest. On May 26, the coffin departed from Beijing, and on May 28, it arrived in Nanjing. On June 1, 1929, Dr. Sun was buried at Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum (中山陵), Nanjing.

Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum (中山陵) is situated at the foot of the second peak of Mount Zijin (Purple Mountain) in Nanjing, China. Construction of the tomb started in January 1926 and was finished in spring of 1929. The architect was Lu Yanzhi(呂彥直, 1894-1929), who died shortly after it was finished. Lu died at the age of 35, relative young age.

After Sun’s death

Warlordism did not end after Dr Sun's death, but took on a different appearance. All cliques now wore the Zhongshan suit and had party membership, effectively becoming KMT franchisees. Tang Jiyao, claiming to be Sun's chosen successor, tried to seize control of the southern government during the Yunnan-Guangxi War but was routed. In the north the Anti–Fengtian War was waged from November 1925 to April 1926 by the Guominjun against the Fengtian clique and their Zhili clique allies. The war ended with the defeat of the Guominjun and the end of the provisional executive government.

After Dr Sun's death, Hu Hanmin(胡漢民/胡汉民, 1879-1936) was one of the three most powerful figures in Kuomintang, as vice generalissimo,he become acting generalissimo when Dr Sun Yat-sen left Guangzhou to Shaoguan(韶关)in Sept 1924, and chairman of Chinese Kuomintang Central Political Committee(中国国民党中央政治委员会/中央政治会议/中政会), the top decision body of ruling KMT(國民黨). He was a very important right-winger in Kuomintang. The other two were Wang Jingwei(汪兆銘,汪精衛, 1883-1944) and Liao Zhongkai(廖仲恺/廖仲愷, 1877-1925) who were left wingers, who were close with the Soviet Union as well as the Chinese Communist Party. Liao Zhongkai was the finance minister under Dr Sun.

National Government of the ROC,Guangdong(中華民國國民政府)1/7/1925 to 20/5/1948

After the death of Dr Sun, for the unification of modern China and to start the Northern Expedition(北伐) against the Beiyang government in Beijing. Chinese Kuomintang Central Political Committee(中国国民党中央政治委员会) decided to form a national government at Guangdong on 1-7-1925. National Military Council(國民政府軍事委員會) was also formed at the same time to command the Chinese National Revolutionary Army(國民革命軍) for Northern Expedition. Wang jingwei, Tan Yankai(譚延闓) and Chiang Kai-shek(蔣介石) were in the committee of National Militry Council, with Wang as chairman. This new government replaced the Military government in Guangzhou (1921-1925) set up by Dr Sun.

Wang jingwei(汪兆銘) was elected as the first chairman of the National Government of the ROC,Guangdong(第一任國民政府主席) from 1/7/1925 to 23/3/1926. He was also the 1st chairman of newly formed National Military Council(國民政府軍事委員會).

Liao Zhongkai(廖仲恺) was assassinated before a Kuomintang Executive Committee meeting on August 30, 1925 in Guangzhou, Guangdong when five gunmen riddled him with bullets from Mauser C96's as he stepped out of his limo, and Hu Hanmin was suspected and arrested. This left only Wang Jingwei and the rising Chiang Kai-shek as rivals for control of the Kuomintang. At the time, Chiang Kai-shek was a much junior party leader, but he had a strong political ambition. Wang Jingwei was not a political ambitious man at the time. The event effectively remove two competitors from the obstacles to political ambition of Chiang.

Wang was elected as Chairman of Chinese Kuomintang Central Political Committee on 23-1-1926, replacing Hu Han-min. Wang should theoretically be the most powerful man at this time in modern China, but he lacked military power base despite having appointed as chairman of National Military Council. This also start the political rivalry of Wang and Chiang, Chiang was active in his pursuit of political ambition, Wang was a reactive and passive player. Between the death of Dr Sun and the end of Resistance War, it was the period of Chiang and Wang.

A power struggle between his young protégé Chiang Kai-shek and his old revolutionary comrade Wang Jingwei split the KMT. At stake in this struggle was the right to lay claim to Sun's ambiguous legacy. Chiang's relatively low position in the party's internal hierarchy was bolstered by his military backing and adept political maneuvering following the Zhongshan Warship Incident. On June 5, 1926, Chiang became Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA),and on July 27 1926 he launched a military campaign known as the Northern Expedition in order to defeat the warlords controlling northern China and to unify the country under the KMT.

Wang had clearly lost control of the KMT by 1926, when, following the Zhongshan Warship Incident(中山舰事件), or "March 20th Incident", on March 20, 1926, involved a suspected plot by Captain Li Zhilong of the warship Chung Shan to kidnap Chiang Kai-shek. After the incident, Chiang successfully sent Wang and his family to vacation in Europe. It was important for Chiang to have Wang away from Guangdong while Chiang was in the process of expelling communists from the KMT because Jiang was then the leader of the left wing of the KMT, notably sympathetic to communists and communism, and may have opposed Chiang if he had remained in China. Wang resigned on 23-3-1926 as Chairman, and left Guangzhou to Europe on 11-5-1926.

It triggered a political struggle between the Communist Party of China and Kuomintang(KMT). The civil war began in April 1927, amidst the Northern Expedition. During the 1920s, Communist Party of China activists retreated underground or to the countryside where they fomented a military revolt, beginning the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927. This marked the beginning of the ten year's struggle, known in mainland China as the "Ten Year's Civil War" (十年内战). It lasted until the Xi'an Incident when Chiang Kai-shek was forced to form the Second United Front against the invading Japanese and essentially ended when major active battles ceased in 1949-1950.

After Wang resigned, Chiang becoming the head of the Kuomintang party and commander-in-chief of all the armies for the Northern Expedition.

Tan Yankai(譚延闓) was the acting Chairman of the National Government of the ROC after Wang left, acting Chairman of National Government of ROC, Guangdong(代理國民政府主席) from 30/3/1926 to 20/3/1927). The office later moved to Wuhan(武漢).

On June 5, 1926, Chiang became Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA), and on July 27 he launched a military campaign known as the Northern Expedition(北伐)in order to defeat the warlords controlling northern China and to unify the country under the KMT. The NRA branched into three divisions: to the west was Wang Jingwei and its allies, who led a column to take Wuhan; Bai Chongxi(白崇禧, 1893-1966) went east to take Shanghai; Chiang himself led in the middle route, planning to take Nanjing before pressing ahead to capture Beijing.

National Government at Wuhan(武漢)1926-1927

On 8-11-1926, the National Government of ROC, Guangdong, declared that the capital was moving to Wuhan, and by 5th December, all government offices stopped operating in Guangzhou, by 21-2-1927, the government officially operated in Wuhan. During the period between the moving of the government from Guangzhou and Wuhan from 5/12/1926 to 20/2/1927,Chinese Kuomintang Central Executive Committee(中國國民黨中央執行委員) and National Government Temporary Combined Committee Meeting(國民政府委員臨時聯席會議) as temporary administration institution, Xu Qian(徐謙) was the President of Combined Meeting(聯席會議主席)。

From 21-2-1927 to 19-8-1927, the Wuhan government did not appoint any chairman, the government was ruled by the committee of Wang Jin-wei(汪精衛)、Tan Yankai(譚延闓) 、Sun Ke(孫科)、Xu Qian(徐謙)、Tse-ven Soong or TV Soong(宋子文)as standing committee. Wang Jing-wei was the chairman of the standing committee on 10-3-1927 in his absence. This Wuhan government ruled until Ninghan Reunion(寧漢合流) where Wuhan and Nanjing government reunited.

When Chiang was having power control in KMT, he started the Northern Expedition. But in view of his dictatorship, the KMT members asked Wang to return from Europe. Chiang has no choice, but accepted the return of Wang. Wang returned by train from Russia to China in Feb 1927, in Russia he met Stalin. He arrived at Shanghai on 1-4-1927, returned to Wuhan on 6/4 and on 10/4/1927 officially took over as chairman of the Standing Committee, National Government of ROC, Wuhan (武漢國民政府常務委員會主席)from 10/4/1927 to 20/9/1927. On 5-4-1927, KMT-CCP Joint Declaration (國共兩黨領袖汪兆銘、陳獨秀聯合宣言) was issued by Chen Duxiu(陳獨秀), Secretary General of the Communist Party of China and Wang Jin-wei. He was against Chiang’s suggestion of anti Communist(排共建議),and suggested cooperation with communist(堅持容共). Allied with Chinese Communists and advised by Soviet agent Mikhail Borodin, Wang declared the National Government as having moved to Wuhan. While attempting to direct the government from Wuhan, Wang was notable for his close collaboration with leading Communist figures, including Mao Zedong, Chen Duxiu, and Borodin, and for his faction's provocative land-reform policies.

"Ninghan Separation" (宁汉分裂/寧漢分裂)18/4/1927 to 19/8/1927
(i) 南京(1927年4月18日—1937年11月20日)

Chiang Kai-shek occupied Shanghai in April 1927. Wang's regime was opposed by Chiang Kai-shek, who was in the midst of a bloody purge of Communists in Shanghai on 12/4/1927 or 412 Incident, was calling for a push farther north. Wang was against the bloody suppression of suspected Communists known as the "White Terror". The KMT was now plagued by factionalism between Wang Jingwei and Chiang Kai Shek. Chiang formed a new alternative KMT government in Nanjing(南京國民政府) on 18-4-1927. The separation between the governments of Wang(Wuhan) and Chiang(Nanjing)are known historically as the "Ninghan Separation" (宁汉分裂/寧漢分裂).

During the period from 18-4-1927 to 19-8-1927, there was no appointment of Chairman at Nanjing, but Hu Hanmin supported Chiang and was appointed as Chairman of Central Executive Committee of Kuomintang (Nanjing) from 1927-1931. (南京國民政府採取委員制,由蔣中正、胡漢民、張靜江、吳稚暉、鈕永建等十二人為政府委員,由中政會主席胡漢民主持國民政府,鈕永建為國民政府秘書長,蔣中正為國民革命軍總司令,吳稚暉為總司令部政治部主任。政府轄區包括滬、蘇、浙、閩、兩廣與皖之一部等.)

(ii) Ninghan Reunion(寧漢復合)16/9/1927 to 7/2/1928

Within several weeks of Chiang's suppression of Communists in Shanghai Wang's leftist government was attacked by a KMT-aligned warlord and disintegrated, leaving Chiang as the sole legitimate leader of the Republic. KMT troops occupying territories formerly controlled by Wang conducted massacres of suspected Communists in those areas: around Changsha alone, over ten thousand people were killed in a single twenty day period. Fearing retribution as a Communist sympathizer, Wang publicly claimed allegiance to Chiang and fled to Europe. Wang requested Chiang to resign as Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, as condition for reunion of the government.

On 14/8/1927, Chiang resigned ( 蔣中正下野),as Nanjing and Wuhan reunited(寧漢合流), the government of "ninghan reunion(寧漢復合政府)" on 19/8/1927 moved to Nanjing(遷往南京). Wang Jingwei arrived at Nanjing on Sept (汪兆銘亦於9月初親抵南京) and Ninghan officially reunited(寧漢正式復合),是为“寧漢復合(中國共產黨稱作寧漢合流)”, there was no appointment of Chairman temporary during the period(後暫不設主席期間). The period last from 16/9/1927 to 7/2/1928 without any appointment of chairman for Nanjing government(united government).

The Northern Expedition 1926-1928
The Northern Expedition also known as Northern March began from the KMT's power base in Guangdong province on 9-7-1926, and ended on 29-12-1928, when On June 4, 1928, Zhang, who was heading north from Beijing by train, was assassinated by Japanese conspirators, operating from Japan's Kwantung Army. Yan Xishan(閻錫山/阎锡山)'s forces occupied Beijing and the city was renamed "Beiping" or "Northern Peace". Yan's occupation of Beijing in June, 1928, brought the Northern Expedition to a successful conclusion. Yan's occupation of Beijing in June, 1928, brought the Northern Expedition to a successful conclusion. Yan's assistance to Chiang was rewarded shortly afterwards by his being named Minister of the Interior and deputy commander-in-chief of all Kuomintang armies. Zhang's son, Zhang Xueliang, took over control of Manchuria and decided to cooperate with Chiang and the Kuomintang by replacing all banners of the Beiyang Government in Manchuria to the flag of the Nationalist Government on 29/12/1928, the incident was called North-east Flag Change(東北易幟), thus nominally uniting China under one state, due to his desire to drive out Japanese influence over Manchuria.

National Government, Nanjing(南京國民政府)1927-1948

Tan Yankai(譚延闓)was later appointed as 2nd chairman of the National Government of ROC(第二任國民政府主席)from 7/2/1928 - 10/10/1928年10月10日,also the first President of the National Government, Nanjing(南京國民政府第一任), a united government.

When The National Revolutionary Army (NRA,國民革命軍) entered Beijing in 8th June 1928, which reflected the success of Northern Expedition, a personal political accomplishment for Chiang. Chiang Kai-shek was appointed as 3rd chairman of the National Government of ROC(國民政府委員會主席第三任) and 2nd President of the National Government of ROC, Nanjing(南京國民政府第二任)(首次)from 10-10-1928 to 15-12-1931,along with heads of the five branches of government (五院院長).

On 29/12/1928, Manchuria under Northeast Flag Replacement(東北易幟),The Northern Expedition completed(北伐完成),and China was united(全國統一).

The Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek established control over much of China by 1928. According to Dr Sun's view, military regime should be over, and China should be entering the era of Tutelage Period(训政时期). Tutelage Period was the transition period before a full representative democracy fully implement under new constitution. Hu Han-min was in the opinion, that there was no necessity to have new constitution now. But Wang Jingwei, Yan Xishan(阎锡山),Feng Yuxiang(冯玉祥)met at Beijing, insisted on having new constitution and they drafted the new constitution in opposition to Nanjing government, the drafted constitution was historically known as Taiyuan Constitution(太原約法). The Nationalist Government promulgated the Provisional Constitution of the Political Tutelage Period(中华民国训政时期约法)on 8-5-1931, effective from 1st June. Under this document, the government operated under a one-party system with supreme power held by the National Congress of the Kuomintang and effective power held by the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang. This was the constitution crisis, another personal clash between Chiang and Wang.

Central Plain War(中原大战, May 1930 – November 4, 1930)
Between 1929 and 1930, Wang collaborated with Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan to form a central government in opposition to the one headed by Chiang. Wang took part in a conference hosted by Yan to draft a new constitution, and was to serve as the Prime Minister under Yan, who would be President. Wang's attempts to aid Yan's government ended when Chiang defeated the alliance in the Central Plains War. Central Plains War (中原大战, May 1930 – November 4, 1930 ) was the largest civil war within the factionalised Kuomintang (KMT) that broke out in 1930. It was fought between the forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the coalition of three military commanders who had previously allied with Chiang: Yan Xishan(閻錫山), Feng Yuxiang(馮玉祥), and Li Zongren(李宗仁), Zhang Fakui(張發奎). The war spread wide across Central Plains, a core region of China. Chiang victory, Yan and Feng resigned. Chiang becomes more powerful, and a strong man in modern China. The war however weaken China and KMT in later events against Japanese and Communist.

Lin Sen(林森) was acting Chairman from 15/12/1931 to 1/1/1932, and later appointed as 4th chairman of the National Government of ROC(國民政府主席第四任) and 3rd President of the National Government of ROC, Nanjing(南京國民政府第三任)from 15/12/1931 to 1/8/1943. He was actually a nominal appointment, the Chairman post from 1931 after 6th constitution change, has no power of actual government administration. The actual political power was under General Chiang Kai-sheh, who was the Chairman of National Military Council(國民政府軍事委員會, 1-7-1925 to 31-5-1946) from January 17, 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.

The National Government passes the Constitutional Draft of the Republic of China, called the “May 5th Constitutional Draft” (五五憲草)on 5-5-1936.

Hu Huimin died on May 12, 1936. His death sparked a crisis. Chiang wanted to replace Hu with loyal followers in southern China and end the autonomy the south enjoyed under Hu. As a result Chen and the New Guangxi clique conspired to remove Chiang from office. In the so-called "Liangguang Incident", Chen was forced to resign as governor of Guangdong after Chiang bribed many of Chen's officers to defect and the conspiracy collapsed.

On 12-12-1936,in Xian, Chiang Kai-shek is abducted and held by Marshal Chang Hsue-liang (張學良) and Yang Hu-cheng (楊虎城) until the 25th, when he is released. This event later becomes known as the Xian Incident.

Wang Jing-wei had Changed

In 1931, Wang joined another anti-Chiang government in Guangzhou. After Chiang defeated this regime, Wang reconciled with Chiang's Nanjing government and held prominent posts for most of the decade. Wang was appointed premier just as the Battle of Shanghai (1932) began. He had frequent disputes with Chiang and would resign in protest several times only to have his resignation rescinded. As a result of these power struggles within the KMT, Wang was forced to spend much of his time in exile. He traveled to Germany, and maintained some contact with Adolf Hitler. The effectiveness of the KMT was constantly hindered by leadership and personal struggles, such as that between Wang and Chiang. In December 1935, Wang permanently left the premiership after being seriously wounded during an assassination attempt a month earlier on 1-11-1935.

The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945) was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union (1937–1940) and the United States. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (1941), the war merged into the greater conflict of World War II as a major front of what is broadly known as the Pacific War. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It also made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War if the 1937–1941 period is taken into account.the war is most commonly known as the War of Resistance Against Japan (抗日战争).

7-7-1937- In a Beijing suburb, the Japanese army, looking to provoke confrontation, bombards Wanping County from the Marco Polo Bridge. The Japanese then attempt to take the town. The National Army of the Republic of China puts up fierce resistance, and the first fighting in the War of Resistance Against Japan is initiated. This event is later known as the “July 7th Incident” (七七事變).

During the period of 21/11/1937 to 5/5/1946, during the Resistance War, the capital of the National Government moved to Chongqing(重慶), historically it was known as Chongqing National Government(重慶國民政府). After the war was over, the capital of the government moved back to Nanjing on 5-5-1946.

29-3-1938- In Wuchang, the Kuomintang convenes an emergency National Congress. Guidelines on fighting the War of Resistance and national reconstruction are formulated. Chiang Kai-shek is elected Director-General of the Kuomintang, and Wang Qing-wei (汪精衛) Deputy Director-General of the Kuomintang.

1940 - During this time,Wang Jingwei with the Japanese Imperial Army, formed the puppet government, Japanese called it Nanjing National Government, but historically it was Wang Jingwei regime(汪精衛政權, 1940-1945). Wang Jingwei was originally the leftist leader of a Kuomintang (KMT) faction called the Reorganizationists who had broken away from Chiang Kai-Shek's government in March 1940 and defected to the Japanese invaders. Wang from a patriotic Dr Sun's supporter becomes a traitor, is it because of the personal rivalry between him and Chiang that caused the drastic change, that upgraded into national political conflict?...what caused the change?....

1941- on 10th Feb 1941, the Revolutionary Alliance Conference of Taiwan (台灣革命同盟會) is set up in Chongqing, under the direction of the Kuomintang. Its guiding purpose is to focus all of Taiwan’s revolutionary power to topple Japanese imperialism; restore Taiwan to glory; and unite in effort with the motherland to establish a new China based on the Three Principles of the People.

On 9-12-1941, The Republic of China officially declares war on the Axis powers of Japan, Germany and Italy, following the start of the Pacific War.

General Chiang Kai Sheh Era from 1-6-1943 to 20-5-1948

When Lin Sen was sick, General Chiang Kai-sheh was relieving from 1-6-1943 to 1-8-1943. Chairman of the National Government Lin Sen (林森) died on 1-8-1943. He was then acting from 1-8-1943 to 10-10-1943. From 10-10- 1943 to May 20, 1948, he was elected as 5th chairman of the National Government of ROC(國民政府委員會主席,第五任) and 4th President of the National Government of ROC, Nanjing(南京國民政府第四任)(二次). In 1943, the constitution changed again to gove actual government administration power to the Chairman(主席). General Chiang Kai-sheh was the one now holding actual political power as well as military power, the man who actually ruled the united modern China, the strong man of China.

Japan surrendered on 14-8-1945.

Republic of China(1948-1949 in mainland, after 1949 in Taiwan)

When the ROC moved the capital back to Nanjing, and the Second Sino-Japanese War was over, but the Chinese Civil War anticipated. The political climate pressured Chiang Kai-shek into enacting a democratic Constitution that would put an end to KMT single party rule. The Chinese Communists sought a coalition, made of one-third Nationalists, one-third Communists, and one-third of members from other parties, to form a coalition government that would draft the new Constitution. However, Chiang Kai-shek refused to relinquish power and insisted on having the Nationalist Government draft the Constitution and then holding nation-wide elections in which the Communists would be permitted to participate.KMT-drafted Constitution was adopted by the National Assembly on December 25, 1946, promulgated by the National Government on January 1, 1947, and went into effect on December 25, 1947. The Constitution was seen as the third and final stage of Kuomintang reconstruction of China. This time the 2nd constitution crisis was between Chiang and Communists.

There after that, ROC government replaced National Government(中華民國政府取代國民政府). General Chiang become the first President(總統)of ROC or Republic of China(中華民國), and continued from 1/3/1950 to 5/4/1975. He was however chased away from mainland China when communist took over in 1949. Chiang remained as President in Taiwan until the day he died in 1975.

The Communists, though invited to the convention that drafted it, boycotted and declared after the ratification that not only would it not recognize the ROC constitution, but all bills passed by the Nationalist administration would be disregarded as well. Zhou Enlai challenged the legitimacy of the National Assembly in 1947 by accusing KMT hand-picked the members of the National Assembly 10 years earlier and thus could not have legal representative of the Chinese people.

The history revealed that before Dr Sun's death, there were warlords, and after his death, there was KMT splits between Wang Jingwei and Chiang Kai-sheh, and Chinese civil war between KMT and CCP started, and Japanese invasion. It was a history of divided nation, chaos, and wars. The democracy and constitutional government were facing obstacles after obstacles, movement to republican was further delay, and slow down. Military rule under one party(KMT)or under communist rule were the norm. There was no unity, and China continue divided until today.

Will it be a different scenario, when Hu Han-min,Liao Zhongkai, and Wang Jing-wei are united like in the days of Tongmenhui?... the ambitious dictator opportunist General Chiang Kai-sheh will be contained, and Wang Jing-wei will not become a traitor..... Too many heads spoiled the soup, and failed Dr Sun Yat-sen dream journey to republic....




Dr Sun Yat -sen - The challege of having own military force

Dr Sun Yat-sen may be the Provincial President of newly found Republic of China, but he held the post for a short while, thereafter he had to pass the post to Yuan Shikai. Dr Sun realized that he needed his own military forces for revolution.

After the death of Yuan Shikai, China fragmented into numerous fiefdoms ruled by warlords. Sun Yat-sen attempted in 1917 and 1920 to set up a base in his native Guangdong to launch a northern campaign to unite China under his Three Principles of the People. However, his government remained militarily weaker than local warlords armies. Calls by Sun for arms and money were ignored by the western powers.

Then in 1921 the representative of Comintern, Henk Sneevliet (using the name Maring), met with Sun in Guangxi. He proposed to set up a military academy and train the revolutionary army, which confirmed Sun's ideas and he eventually accepted. The Chinese Communist Party sent Li Dazhao and Lin Boqu (林伯渠) to discuss with Sun and his party on how to set up this academy.

In 1924, in the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang, the policy of alliance with the Soviet Union and CCP was passed as guidance for KMT. As a result, the final decision of establishment of a military academy was made and preparatory committee was set up accordingly. The money necessary for the construction and support of the Academy in 1924-1925 was provided by the Soviets.

The Nationalist Party of China Army Officer Academy (中国国民党陆军军官学校/中國國民黨陸軍軍官學校), commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy (黄埔军校), was a military academy in the Republic of China (ROC) that produced many prestigious commanders who fought in many of China's conflicts in the 20th century, notably the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.

Chiang Kai-shek(蔣中正/蔣介石) was appointed the first commandant of the academy. Liao Zhongkai (廖仲愷), the famous leftist of Kuomintang and Sun's treasury secretary, was appointed as representative of KMT to the academy. Zhou Enlai, Hu Han-min and Wang Ching-wei were among the instructors in the political department. He Yingqin and Ye Jianying were once military instructors.

The military academy was officially opened on May 1, 1924 under the Kuomintang (KMT), but the first lessons began on June 16, 1924. The inauguration was on Changzhou Island offshore from the Whampoa dock in Guangzhou, thus earning its common name. During the inaugural ceremonies, Sun Yat-sen delivered a speech that was later to become the lyrics of the national anthem of the Republic of China.

The original Whampoa Military Academy existed from 1924 to 1926, over 6 terms it enrolled more than 7000.

Sun Yat-sen died on March 12, 1925, creating a power vacuum in the Kuomintang. Liao Zhongkai was one of the three most powerful figures in the Kuomintang Executive Committee, the other two were Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin. A contest ensued between Chiang, who stood at the right wing of the KMT, and Sun Yat-sen's close comrade-in-arms Wang Jingwei, who leaned towards the left. Liao was assassinated before a Kuomintang Executive Committee meeting on August 30, 1925 in Guangzhou, Hu was suspected and arrested, and Wang Jingwei was the only one left. On June 5, 1926, Chiang became Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA), and on July 27 he launched a military campaign known as the Northern Expedition in order to defeat the warlords controlling northern China and to unify the country under the KMT. Chiang Kai-shek occupied Shanghai in April 1927, and began a bloody suppression of suspected Communists known as the "White Terror". Within several weeks of Chiang's suppression of Communists in Shanghai Wang's leftist government was attacked by a KMT-aligned warlord and disintegrated, leaving Chiang as the sole legitimate leader of the Republic. Chiang Kai-shek purged the Chinese Communist Party during the Northern Expedition, which caused the beginning of Chinese civil war. Wang Jingwei's National Government was weak militarily, and was soon ended by Chiang with the support of a local warlord. Wang, fearing retribution as a Communist sympathizer,publicly claimed allegiance to Chiang and fled to Europe. Chiang become the Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China on 10-10-1928 and new political power in modern China until 1949.

The academy was moved to the newly established capital in Nanjing after the defeat of the warlords in 1928. The academy moved again to Chengdu during the Japanese invasion. In 1950, after the Communist victory on mainland China and the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the academy was re-established in Fengshan, Kaohsiung County (now part of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan as the Chinese Military Academy (陸軍官校) and changed name in 2004 to the Military University. (軍官大學) The site of the original academy in Guangzhou is now a museum.

Note: In 1925, Chiang Ching-Kuo, son of Chiang Kai-shek went on to Moscow to study at a Communist school. Ching-kuo was an enthusiastic student of Communist ideology, particularly Trotskyism. He lived in Russia for 12 years and have a Russian wife, Faina Ipat'evna Vakhreva,one son and one daughter were born in Russia.

For reader's information, Dr Sun also had pilot training school in Japan, and modern army training base in USA.

It is also interesting to know that Wang Jingwei, the successor of Dr Sun faced the same problem of no support by own army. The political power was within the hands of General Chiang Kai-shek,a military dictator and a fake republican, like General Yuan Shikai, taken away the fruit of Xinhai Revolution, obstruct the road to democracy and Republic. The military power prevail over the democratic constitutional forces, the democrats and republicans, who due to lack of military power to protect their belief, failed one by one, some were assassinated or faded away on the way... the winner were military opportunist General Chiang Kai-shek and Chinese communists, who bought the people more wars, dead, and sufferings....


Dr Sun - The aspiration for New China

Wuchang Uprising - The Choice by the people

The New Armies (新軍) were the modernized Qing armies, trained and equipped according to Western standards. The first of the new armies was founded in 1895, following Japan's victory in the First Sino-Japanese War.

On December 8, 1895, Empress Dowager Cixi appointed Yuan Shikai the commander of the 4,000 men who formed the basis of the first New Army. Further expanded to 7,000, this New Army became the most formidable of the three army groups stationed near Beijing and proved effective against the Boxers in Shandong province. Yuan showed his loyalty to the Qing court, albeit little more than symbolically, by committing a detachment to relieve Beijing from foreign hands.

The New Army was gradually expanded and upgraded in the following years. Yuan became increasingly disrespectful of the dynasty and only loyal to the party from which he benefited; his defection to Cixi against Guangxu Emperor was a major blow to the Hundred Days Reform. After 1900, Yuan's troops were the only militia that the Qing court could rely on amidst revolutionary uprisings throughout China.

The successful example of the new army was followed in other provinces. The New Army of Yuan was renamed the Beiyang Army on June 25, 1902 after Yuan was officially promoted to the "Minister of Beiyang". By the end of the dynasty in 1911, most provinces had established sizable new armies; however, Yuan's army was still most powerful, comprising six groups and numbering more than 75,000 men. The Qing unified all of China's armies into one force, the "Chinese Army", which was commonly still called the New Army. Two-thirds of the Chinese Army was Yuan's Beiyang Army.

During the Xinhai Revolution, most of the non-Beiyang forces as well as some Beiyang units in the Chinese Army revolted against the Qing. Yuan led the Beiyang Army into opposing the revolution while also negotiating for the Qing's surrender and his ascendency to the presidency of the new republic.

There were 5,000 new army in Hubei. About 75% were either member of the revolutionary movement or supporters.

The uprising itself broke out by accident. At the time there were two local revolutionary groups ready in Wuhan, the Literary society (文學社) and the Progressive Association (共進會). The two groups worked together led by Chiang Yi-wu (蔣翊武) and Sun wu (孫武).

The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city of Wuchang, Hubei province on October 10, 1911.[1] The Battle of Yangxia led by Huang Xing would be the major battle in the uprising. These events served as a catalyst to the Xinhai Revolution, which led to the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). It was actually New Army Mutiny.

They met in Yanzhi Lu and decided mutiny to be on Mid-Autumn festival (6-10-1911), but the date was disclosed by the drunken soldiers, the government army imposed curfew, the date was postponed to 9-10-1911. An accident by cigarettes caused an exposure, which resulted in the alert of the government army, and the Member Register of Revolutionaries was obtained by the army. Sun wu (孫武)was seriously injured.

Facing arrest, and certain execution, the revolutionaries had their identities revealed. They had no choice but to stage a coup. Qing Viceroy of Huguang Duan Zheng (瑞澂) tried to track down the revolutionaries. Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) of the Literary society decided to launch an attack that night, but was discovered by the Qing. Before the mutiny started , the group were surrounded by the government army, 32 were captured except Chiang Yi-wu (蔣翊武).Several members were arrested and executed.

Xiong Bingkun (熊秉坤) then decided to revolt on the evening of October 10, 1911 at 7pm. The modernized New Army in Wuchang staged a mutiny. While the New Army belonged to the Qing government, it has already been infiltrated by the then exiled Sun Yat-sen's anti-Qing allegiance. This event would takeover the government house office of Duan Zheng, who was terrified and escaped from a dig-tunnel. After fierce fighting, the army captured strategic points in the city. More revolutionaries joined the revolt and the government troops were defeated.

This was the famous Wuchang Uprising or Wuchang Mutiny. The 18 star flag of the revolutionary was raised at famous Heyang tower. The uprising later spread to become Xinhai Revolution that ended the Qing Empire.

Sun Yat-sen himself played no direct part with the uprising in Wuchang. He was traveling in the United States, trying to drum up financial support from overseas Chinese. At the time he was at Denver Colorado at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. He received a telegram from Huang Xing that was one week old and could not decipher it because he did not have the secret key with him. The next morning he read in the newspaper headline that the city of Wuchang was occupied by the revolutionaries. After the wuchang uprising, the revolutionaries telegraphed the other provinces asking them to declare their independence, and 15 provinces declared their independence from the Qing dynasty in Southern China and Central China

Representatives from the seceding provinces met and declared the founding of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912. Sun Yat-sen would return to China on December 1911 to be elected provisional president of the Republic of China.

When the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 broke out, the Wuchang mutineers needed a visible high-ranking officer to be their figurehead. Li Yuanhong (黎元洪)was well respected, had supported the Railway Protection Movement, and knew English which would be useful in dealing with foreign concerns. He was reportedly dragged from hiding under his wife's bed and forced at gunpoint to be the provisional military governor of Hubei despite killing several of the rebels. Though reluctant at first, he embraced the revolution after its growing momentum and was named military governor of China on November 30.

Li was made vice president as a compromise and he formed People's Society to campaign for the presidency.

Sun eventually agreed to cede his provisional presidency to Yuan Shikai, in exchange for Yuan's help in pressuring the Last Emperor to abdicate. On February 12, 1912, Puyi, the Last Emperor stepped down from the throne. The Qing dynasty could no longer govern itself as it seemed to have forefeited the mandate of heaven. This brought an end to the imperial era.

The Wuchang Uprising was started basically by the new army of the Qing Empire, who were supporters of Tongmenhui, a form of mutiny. The one person who has done much of the ground work within the new army was Zhao Shen(趙聲, 1881-1911), the chief commander of the revolutionists in 2nd Guangzhou New Army Uprising(庚戌新军起义/廣州新軍起義) and the Huanghuakang Uprising(黃花崗起義). After the failure of Huanghuakang Uprising, he was so sad and become seriously ill, passed away on 18-4-1911. Zhao Shen, himself a new army official, would have participated in the Wuchang Uprising if he is still alive. Another one was Ni Yingdian(倪映典 1885-1910),who was the 2nd in command of 2nd Guangzhou Uprising or Guangzhou New Army Uprising( 庚戌新军起义/廣州新軍起義), also a new army.

Remember Hwang Xing(黃興),Zhao Shen(趙聲), and Ni Yingdian(倪映典)in Wuchang Uprising, they are the man behind the event.....their names may not be remember now in Mainland China and Taiwan. It was 100 years ago, many have fade memory or disregard the historical personality...

Choices were made which led to various historical events of China by the heroes of the era, the journey to Republic.

Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命)

Today is the 100 Year Anniversary of Xinhai Revolution, and formation of Republic of China. Both Taiwan and Mainland China celebrated the 100 anniversary of the historical event on 10-10-1911.

Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou(馬英九)said Monday that China should "move bravely toward freedom and democracy."

Chinese President Hu Jintao (胡錦濤) yesterday used the centennial of a revolution that ended imperial rule to make an appeal to further relations with Taiwan, saying they should move beyond the history that divides them and focus on common economic and cultural interests. Hu said China and Taiwan should end antagonisms, “heal wounds of the past and work together to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.” He stressed that “Achieving reunification by peaceful means best serves the fundamental interests of all Chinese, including our Taiwan compatriots,” Hu said, adding that the sides should increase economic competitiveness, promote Chinese culture and build on a sense of a common national identity.“We must strengthen our opposition to Taiwanese independence ... and promote close exchanges and cooperation between compatriots on both sides,” he said.

It seems the anniversary bought some good tidings, will the two leaders make history by moving together for unification. That their names will make history for themselves and the Chinese people prior to their retirement from politic.

Time is now short for both, as Hu jintao may be due to leave office from next year , and Ma Ying-jeou is to face President re-election soon.

The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution (辛亥革命), also known as the Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty, the Qing (1644-1912), and established the Republic of China. The revolution consist of many revolts and uprisings. The turning point is the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911 that was a result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement. The revolution ended with the abdication of the "Last Emperor" Puyi on February 12, 1912, that marked the end of over 2,000 years of Imperial China and the beginning of China's Republican era. The revolution name "Xinhai" is named after the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.

In general the revolution was a reaction to the declining Qing state and its inability to reform and modernize China to confront the challenges posed by foreign powers and reverse domestic decline, and the majority Han Chinese's resentment of the ruling Manchu minority. Many underground anti-Qing groups with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile have tried to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui (United League). After the Qing court transferred power to the newly-founded republic, the formation of a provisional coalition government was created along with the National Assembly. Though political power of the new national government in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and leading to decades of political division and warlordism, including several attempts at imperial restoration.

Today, both the Republic of China on Taiwan and the People's Republic of China on the mainland consider themselves to be successors to the Xinhai Revolution and continue to pay homage to the ideals of the revolution including nationalism, republicanism, modernization of China and the national unity. October 10 is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the Republic of China. In mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, the same day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. Many overseas Chinese also celebrate the anniversary in Chinatowns across the world.

“For us, China’s Xinhai Revolution is still not dead history, it still has a strong resonance with present-day realities,” said Lei Yi, a historian at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing. “A key lesson of the revolution is that the country’s fate depends on whether the rulers make the right choices about advancing reforms. Above all, there’s still the issue that a modern China needs a modern form of government — constitutional government.”

Remembering Xinhai Revolution in 1911, the revolutionists who lost their lives for the sake of the future of the China, will they be happy at the situation in the strait today?

Will they be happy to see the strait relationship been manipulated by the foreign power to gain political and economic benefits at the expense of the Chinese people?...

Will the mainland China prepare for a political reform to change to constitutional government system?.

The time is right now for unification,and is right time for reformation.

Are they bold and ready to make the first step?......

Dawn of Qing Dynasty

Dawn is the time that marks the beginning of the twilight before sunrise. It is recognized by the presence of weak sunlight, while the sun itself is still below the horizon. Dawn should not be confused with sunrise, which is the moment when the leading edge of the sun itself appears above the horizon. 100 years ago, today Qing Dynasty, China's last empire was facing its dawn day in history.....

The founding of Qing Dynasty 1644

Qing Dynasty(清朝),last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912. The Qing Dynasty was founded not by Han Chinese, who form the majority of the Chinese population, but a hunting, fishing, and farming people who would come to be known as the Manchus, and who are today an ethnic minority of China. The Manchus believed themselves to be descended from Jurchens (女真), a Tungusic people who lived around the region now comprising the Chinese provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang. During Hong Taiji(爱新觉罗氏皇太极,1592-1643)'s reign, the official name of "Manchu" (滿族) for all Jurchen people in November 1635. He also changed the name of his empire from Jin(金, historically known as later Jin 后金)to Qing(清). He is also known as Hóng Tàijí (洪太極) or Huáng Táijí (皇台吉). He continued the expansion of the state in the region later known as Manchuria, pushing deeper into Mongolia and raiding Korea and Ming China. His personal military abilities were widely praised and he effectively developed the military-civil administration known as the Eight Banners or Banner system. This system was well-suited to accept the different peoples, primarily Chinese and Mongols, who joined the Manchu state either following negotiated agreements or military defeat. Hong Taiji died on 21-9-1643, just few months before his army seize control of Beijing.

In 1644, the Ming Dynasty's capital of Beijing was sacked by a coalition of rebel forces led by Li Zicheng(李自成,1606-1645) a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt. The last Ming ruler, the 16th Ming emperor, Chongzhen Emperor(明思宗)committed suicide when the city fell. This make the official end of the Ming dynasty. Li Zicheng proclaimed himself as the Emperor of Shun Dynasty, and ruled over China briefly from 1643-1645, less than 2 years.

The Manchus then allied with Ming general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing and overthrew Shun Dynasty. Li's army was defeated on May 27, 1644 at the Battle of Shanhai Pass by the combined forces of Ming turncoat general Wu Sangui(吳三桂,1612-1678) and the Manchurians, Li fled from Beijing towards his base in Shaanxi. Historically, he disappeared and where about unknown. The empire of Han had ended, and China was ruled by foreigner, Manchu under Qing Dynasty, the mandate of heaven was given to a foreign race.

The first emperor of Qing Dynasty was Aisin Gioro Fulin(爱新觉罗福臨,1638-1661), the son of Hong Taiji who ruled from 1644-1661. He was actually the 3rd emperor of the Qing Dynasty but the first emperor to rule over China. He was given the title of The Shunzhi Emperor (順治帝), a child emperor. He ascended to the throne at the age of five (six according to traditional Chinese age reckoning) in 1643 upon the death of his father Hong Taiji, but actual power during the early part of his reign lay in the hands of the appointed regents, Princes Dorgon.

The dawn of Qing Dynasty

Qing empire was facing humiliation from foreign power,First Sino-Japanese War, Opium Wars, and was politically weak. It was in dilemma, facing the pressure from their own people to change and modernize. The reformists and revolutionists were actively fighting for their agenda. The Qing emperor was worry these movements were going after the country as a whole or their own power base. Initially they were for reformation, but later was fearful that they may lost their imperial power under Constitutional Monarchy. Ultimately the time was short for Qing, they no longer has luxuries of ample time to decide. It was the dawn time....

The Four Bandits and later Hsing Chung Hui(兴中会)in 1894 , Yang Heling(杨鹤龄) , Sun Yat-sen(孙中山), Chen Shaobai(陈少白) and You Lie(尤列)had arrived, Huang Xing(黄兴), Song Jiaoren(宋教仁) of The Huaxinghui(華興會) in 1904, and the same year Guāngfùhuì (光復會) formed by Cai Yuanpei(蔡元培),Tao Chengzhang (陶成章) ,龔寶銓、魏蘭, joined by Xu Xilin(徐錫麟)、Qiu Jin(秋瑾), Zhang Taiyan(章太炎). There were many more revolutionaries planning to overthrow Qing for the formation of Republic, they later become members of Tongmenhui. Never mind if you cannot remember the names, they were the names that make the history of modern China....

From 1889 to 1898, the Empress Dowager lived in the Summer Palace in semi-retirement. Guangxu Emperor was given the opportunity to actually walk out from her shallow of this powerful de factor ruler of China. But the opportunity was also too short, otherwise the fate of Qing may had changed.

After losing to Japan in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Guangxu Emperor initiated the Hundred Days' Reform, in which new laws were put in place and some old rules were abolished. Newer, more progressive-minded thinkers like Kang Youwei(康有为/康有為, 1858-1927) were trusted and recognized conservative-minded people like Li Hongzhang(李鸿章, 1823-1901) were removed from high positions. The reform movement,The Hundred Days' Reform(百日維新), was short-lived, for only 104 days. It ended in a coup d'état ("The Coup of 1898") by powerful conservative opponents led by Empress Dowager Cixi, in 1898. He was put under house arrest until his death.

Empress Dowager Cixi(慈禧太后, 1835-1908), issued an imperial edict in 1901 calling for reform proposals from the governors-general and governors and initiated the era of the dynasty's "New Policy", also known as the "Late Qing Reform". Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor(光绪帝, 1871-1908) both died in 1908, leaving a relatively powerless and unstable central authority. Aisin-Gioro Puyi(愛新覺羅.溥儀, 1906-1967, the oldest son of Prince Zaifeng(愛新覺羅載沣, 醇親王,1883-1951) was appointed successor at the age of two, leaving Zaifeng with the regency.

In April 1911 Zaifeng created a cabinet, in which there were two vice-premiers. Nevertheless, this cabinet was also known by contemporaries as "The Royal Cabinet" because among the thirteen cabinet members, five were members of the imperial family or Aisin Gioro relatives. This brought a wide range of negative opinions from senior officials like Zhang Zhidong(张之洞, 1837-1909).

Puyi's father, Prince Zaifeng(the 2nd Prince Chun), served as a regent until 6 December 1911 when Empress Dowager Longyu(隆裕皇后, actually Empress Xiao Ding Jing (孝定景皇后)) took over in the face of the Xinhai Revolution. She is best remembered for signing the abdication on behalf of the child Emperor Puyi, in 1911, ending imperial rule in China.

The dawn was too short for them.... Oct 10th 1911, Wuchang Uprising by the new army started the Xinhai Revolution, and the end of Qing Dynasty. The people had decided to change, by overthrowing the Qing emperor, by changing the political system of China, to become a republic.....

Today was the 100 years after the fall of Qing Empire....

Is the past lesson on the political history tell us something? We need to understand the people, otherwise the anger and desire for change by the people will decide the fate of the government.

It does not matter how long the government has ruled the country; the Jasmin flowers will always ready for the government who are not for the people.... just like Tunisia, Egypt, Libya...and the Qing Dynasty 100 years ago.....