Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Chinese gold miners in California(1848-1855)

Sutter's Mill
Sing by the late Dan Fogelberg

In the Spring of Forty-seven,
So the story, it is told,
Old John Sutter went to the mill site
Found a piece of shining gold.

Well, he took it to the city
Where the word, like wildfire, spread.
And old John Sutter soon came to wish he'd
Left that stone in the river bed.

For they came like herds of locusts
Every woman, child and man
In their lumbering Conestogas
They left their tracks upon the land.

Some would fail and some would prosper
Some would die and some would kill
Some would thank the Lord for their deliverance
And some would curse John Sutter's Mill.

Well, they came from New York City,
And they came from Alabam'
With their dreams of finding fortunes
In this wild unsettled land.

Well, some fell prey to hostile arrows
As they tried to cross the plains.
And some were lost in the Rocky Mountains
With their hands froze to the reins.


Well, some pushed on to California
And others stopped to take their rest.
And by the Spring of Eighteen-sixty
They had opened up the west.

And then the railroad came behind them
And the land was plowed and tamed,
When Old John Sutter went to meet his maker,
With not one penny to his name.


And some would curse John Sutter's Mill
Some men's thirsts are never filled.

1848 - Discovery of Gold

The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California. News of the discovery brought some 300,000 people rushing to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. Of the 300,000, approximately 150,000 arrived by sea while the other half of them walked 1,500 miles (2,400 km) overland.

First Chinese immigrants - two men and one women - arrive in San Francisco on the American brig, Eagle in 1848

The first major Chinese immigration wave started around the 1850s. The West Coast of North America was being rapidly colonized during the California Gold Rush, while southern China suffered from severe political and economic instability due to the weakness of the Qing Dynasty government, internal rebellions such as the Taiping Rebellion, and external pressures such as the Opium Wars. As a result, many Chinese emigrated from the poor Taisanese- and Cantonese-speaking area in Guangdong province to the United States in order to work. Chinese immigrants in the 19th century worked as laborers, particularly on the transcontinental railroad, such as the Central Pacific Railroad, and the mining industry, and suffered racial discrimination. While industrial employers were eager to get this new and cheap labor, the ordinary white public was stirred to anger by the presence of this "yellow peril." Political party caucuses, labor unions, and other organizations rallied against the immigration of yet another "inferior race". Newspapers condemned the policies of employers, and even church leaders denounced the entrance of these aliens into what was regarded as a land for whites only.

For most Chinese immigrants of the 1850s San Francisco was only a transit station on the way to the gold fields in the Sierra Nevada. According to estimates, there were in the late 1850s 15,000 Chinese mine workers in the "Gold Mountains" or "Mountains of Gold" (Cantonese: Gam Saan, 金山). Because anarchic conditions prevailed in the gold fields, the robbery by European miners of Chinese mining area permits were barely pursued or prosecuted and the Chinese gold seekers themselves were often victim to violent assaults. In response to this hostile situation these Chinese miners developed a basic approach which differed from the white European gold miners; while the Europeans mostly worked as individuals or in small groups, the Chinese formed large teams, in which not only were they protected against attacks, but on account of their good organization they also often achieved a considerably higher yield. To protect themselves even further against attacks, they preferred to mainly turn to such areas which had been previously judged by other gold seekers as unproductive and had been given up. Because much of the gold fields were exhaustingly gone over up until the beginning of the 20th century, many of the Chinese remained far longer there than the European gold seekers; in 1870, a third of the men in the Californian golden fields were Chinese.

However, their displacement had begun already in 1850 when the white gold miners began to resent the Chinese miners, feeling that they were discovering gold that the white miners deserved. And eventually, protest rose from white miners to eliminate the growing competition. From 1852 to 1870 (ironically when the Civil Rights Act of 1866 was passed), the California legislature enforced a series of taxes.

1852 - Foreign Miner's Tax
In 1852, a special foreign miner's tax aimed at the Chinese was passed by the California legislature that was aimed at foreign miners who were not U.S. citizens. Given that the Chinese were ineligible for citizenship at that time and constituted the largest percentage of the non-white population, the taxes were primarily aimed at them and tax revenue was therefore generated almost exclusively by the Chinese. This tax required a payment of three dollars each month at a time when Chinese miners were making approximately six dollars a month. Tax collectors could legally take and sell the property of those miners who refused or could not pay the tax. Fake tax collectors made money by taking advantage of people who could not speak English well, and some tax collectors, both false and real, stabbed or shot miners who could not or would not pay the tax. During the 1860s, many Chinese were expelled from the mine fields and were forced to find other types of jobs. This Foreign Miner's Tax existed till 1870.

Old St. Mary's Church erected in 1853.

1854 - People v. Hall case
The position of the Chinese gold seekers also was complicated by a decision of the California Supreme Court which decided in the case "The People of the State of California v. George W. Hall" ("People v. Hall") in 1854 that the Chinese were not allowed to testify as witnesses before the court in California against white citizens, including those accused of murder. The decision was largely based upon the prevailing opinion that the Chinese were “a race of people whom nature has marked as inferior, and who are incapable of progress or intellectual development beyond a certain point, as their history has shown; differing in language, opinions, color, and physical conformation; between whom and ourselves nature has placed an impassable difference" and as such had no right " to swear away the life of a citizen" or participate" with us in administering the affairs of our Government.”

The ruling effectively made white violence against Chinese Americans unprosecutable, arguably leading to more intense white-on-Chinese race riots, such as the 1877 San Francisco Riot. The Chinese living in California were with this decision left practically in a legal vacuum, because they had now no possibility to assert their rightful legal entitlements or claims – possibly in cases of theft or breaches of agreement – in court. The ruling remained in force until 1873."

1856 Gold Rush was over
The golf rush was over, as gold fields were exhausted. Many European miners had left. Many Chinese gold miners still remained to continue gold mining on the unproductive mines. They remained far longer there than the European gold seekers; and in 1870, a third of the men in the Californian golden fields were Chinese.

"The Chinese School" was created. Chinese children were assigned to this "Chinese only" school. They were not permitted into any other public schools in San Francisco.

California’s Anti-Coolie Tax

1863 -1869 Transcontinental railroad

After the gold rush wound down in the 1860s, the majority of the work force found jobs in the railroad industry. Chinese labor was integral to the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad, which linked the railway network of the Eastern United States with California on the Pacific coast. Construction began in 1863 at the terminal points of Omaha, Nebraska and Sacramento, California, and the two sections were merged and ceremonially completed on May 10, 1869, at the famous "golden spike" event at Promontory Summit, Utah. It created a nationwide mechanized transportation network that revolutionized the population and economy of the American West. This network caused the wagon trains of previous decades to become obsolete, exchanging it for a modern transportation system. The building of the railway required enormous labor in the crossing of plains and high mountains by the Union Pacific Railroad and Central Pacific Railroad, the two privately chartered federally backed enterprises that built the line westward and eastward respectively. Many of the Chinese railway workers were ex-gold miners. Despite the contribution of the Chinese workers in the American transportation history, the discrimination still continued.

Chinese Congregational Church and Chinese United Methodist Church are established

Presbyterian Mission Home for Chinese women, later renamed Donaldina Cameron House is established

Page Law bars Asian prostitutes, felons, and contract laborers

US and China sign treaty giving the US the right to limit but "not absolutely prohibit" Chinese immigration. California's Civil Code passes anti-miscegination law.

First Chinese Baptist Church founded.

1882 -1892 The Discrimination

So hostile was the opposition that in 1882 the United States Congress eventually passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which prohibited immigration from China for the next ten years. This law was then extended by the Geary Act in 1892. The Chinese Exclusion Act was the only U.S. law ever to prevent immigration and naturalization on the basis of race. These laws not only prevented new immigration but also brought additional suffering as they prevented the reunion of the families of thousands of Chinese men already living in the U.S. that had left China without their wives and children; anti-miscegenation laws in many states prohibited Chinese men from marrying white women. The Chinese Exclusion Act was only stopped in 1943 by Chapter 344. An Act to repeal the Chinese Exclusion Acts, to establish quotas, and for other purposes(Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act).

By the time most of the gold miners and railway workers had looked for other employment, such as in farming, manufacturing firms, garment industries, and paper mills. However, widespread anti-Chinese discrimination and violence from whites, including riots and murders, drove many into self-employment.

(source: extracted from…)

The Gold Mining days was over......and San Francisco was called Old Golden Mountain by Chinese(Kau Gam Saan, 舊金山/旧金山).....

Monday, July 26, 2010

San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)

"San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)" is a song, written by John Phillips of The Mamas & the Papas, and sung by Scott McKenzie. It was written and released in 1967 to promote the Monterey Pop Festival.

McKenzie's song became an instant hit. The lyrics tell the listeners, "If you're going to San Francisco, be sure to wear some flowers in your hair". Due to the difference between the lyrics and the actual title, the title is often quoted as "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Some Flowers in Your Hair)". "San Francisco," released on 13 May 1967, was an instant hit. By June 1967, it commanded the number four spot on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States. Meanwhile, the song rose to number one in the United Kingdom and most of Europe. The single is purported to have sold over 7 million copies worldwide. The song is credited with bringing thousands of young people to San Francisco, California during the late 1960s.

Scott McKenzie, the singer
McKenzie grew up in North Carolina and Virginia, where he became friends with the son of one of his mother's friends, John Phillips. In the mid 1950s, he sang briefly with Tim Rose in a high school group called The Singing Strings, and later with Phillips, Mike Boran and Bill Cleary formed a doo wop band, The Abstracts. In New York, The Abstracts became The Smoothies and recorded two singles with Decca Records, produced by Milt Gabler. In 1961 Phillips and McKenzie met Dick Weissman and formed The Journeymen, which recorded three albums for Capitol Records. After disbanding The Journeymen in 1964, they discussed forming a group called The Mamas & the Papas. McKenzie wanted to perform on his own, so Phillips formed the group with Denny Doherty, Cass Elliot and Michelle Phillips, his second wife. The group soon moved to California. Two years later, McKenzie followed from New York and signed with Lou Adler's Ode Records.

Phillips wrote and produced "San Francisco (Be Sure To Wear Flowers In Your Hair)", which was released in 1967, for McKenzie. John Phillips played guitar on the recording and Michelle Phillips played bells. The bass line of the song was supplied by session musician Joe Osborn. It became a Top 10 hit in the United States and a number one in the UK and several other countries. It sold over seven million copies globally, and was awarded a gold disc.

McKenzie followed the song with "Like An Old Time Movie", also written and produced by Phillips, which was a minor hit. His first album, The Voice of Scott McKenzie was followed with an album called Stained Glass Morning. He stopped recording in the early 1970s and lived in Joshua Tree, California and Virginia Beach.

In 1986, he started singing with a new version of The Mamas and the Papas. With Terry Melcher, Mike Love and John Phillips, he co-wrote the number 1 single for the Beach Boys, "Kokomo" (1988).

By 1998, he had retired from the road version of The Mamas and Papas, and currently resides in Los Angeles, California. He appeared at the Los Angeles tribute concert for John Phillips in 2001, amongst other 1960s contemporary acts.

John Edmund Andrew Phillips (August 30, 1935 – March 18, 2001), the writer of the lyrics
John Edmund Andrew Phillips (August 30, 1935 – March 18, 2001), was an American singer, guitarist, and songwriter. Known as Papa John, Phillips was a member and leader of the singing group The Mamas & the Papas. He was the father of Jeffrey Phillips, Mackenzie Phillips, Chynna Phillips, Tamerlane Phillips, and Bijou Phillips.

Phillips was born in Parris Island, South Carolina. His father was a retired United States Marine Corps officer who won an Oklahoma bar from another Marine in a poker game on the way home from France after World War I. His mother was a Cherokee Native his father met in Oklahoma. According to his autobiography, Papa John, Phillips' father was a heavy drinker who suffered from poor health.

Phillips grew up in Alexandria, Virginia, where he was inspired by Marlon Brando to be "street tough". He formed a group of teenage boys, who also sang doo-wop songs. He played basketball at George Washington High School, where he graduated in 1953, and gained an appointment to the U.S. Naval Academy. However, he resigned during his first (plebe) year. Phillips then attended Hampden-Sydney College on a partial athletic scholarship, but dropped out and married his first of four wives: Susan Adams, the daughter of a wealthy Virginia family. They had a son, Jeffrey, and a daughter, Laura Mackenzie (known as "Mackenzie") Phillips.

The Mamas & the Papas

Phillips longed to have success in the music industry and traveled to New York to find a record contract in the early 1960s. His first band, The Journeymen, was a folk trio, with Scott Mckenzie and Dick Weismann. They were fairly successful, putting out 3 albums and several appearance on the 1960s TV show, Hootenanny. All three albums, as well as a "Best of the Journeymen" were reissued on CD. He developed his craft in Greenwich Village, during the American folk music revival, and met his future The Mamas & the Papas bandmates Denny Doherty and Cass Elliot there. Lyrics of their song "Creeque Alley" describe this period.

While touring California with The Journeymen, he met his future second wife, the teenage Michelle Gilliam. Their affair finally forced the dissolution of his first marriage. Phillips was married to Michelle Phillips from 1962 to 1970. They had one child together, Chynna Phillips, vocalist of the 1990s' pop trio Wilson Phillips.

Phillips was the primary songwriter and musical arranger of The Mamas & the Papas. Early in the band's history, John and Michelle were responsible for writing most of the band's songs. John would often come up with a melody and some lyrics and Michelle would help him complete the lyrical portion of the song. After being signed to Dunhill Records, they had several Billboard Top Ten hits during the group's short lifetime, including "California Dreamin'", "Monday, Monday", "I Saw Her Again", "Creeque Alley", and "12:30 (Young Girls Are Coming to the Canyon)". John Phillips also wrote "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)", the 1967 Scott McKenzie hit that was to become the Summer of Love anthem. Phillips also wrote the oft-covered "Me and My Uncle", which was the song performed more times than any other over 30 years of Grateful Dead concerts.

The Phillipses became Hollywood celebrities, living in the Hollywood Hills and socializing with stars like Jack Nicholson, Warren Beatty, and Roman Polanski. The group broke up largely because Cass Elliot wanted to go solo and because of some personal problems among Phillips, Michelle, and Denny Doherty. Michelle had been fired briefly in 1966, for having had affairs with both Gene Clark and Denny, and was replaced for two months by Jill Gibson, their producer Lou Adler's girlfriend. Although Michelle was forgiven and asked to return to the group, the personal problems would continue until the band split up in 1968. Cass Elliot went on to have a successful solo career until her death from heart failure in 1974.

His later life and Drug Problems

Actress Geneviève Waïte became his third wife in 1972. The couple had two children, Tamerlane and Bijou Phillips. Reportedly, both parents were drug addicts and infidelity marked their marriage

Phillips moved to London in 1973; Mick Jagger encouraged him to record another solo album. It was to be released on Rolling Stones Records and funded by RSR distributor Atlantic Records. Jagger and Keith Richards would produce and play on the album, as well as former Stone Mick Taylor and future Stone Ronnie Wood. The project was derailed by Phillips' increasing use of cocaine and heroin, substances that he shot into his body, by his own admission, "almost every fifteen minutes for two years"

In 1981 Phillips was convicted of drug trafficking; subsequently, he and his television star daughter Mackenzie Phillips made the rounds in the media, instructing kids and their parents how not to become addicts. This public relations campaign helped reduce his prison time to only a month in jail.

Upon release, he re-formed The Mamas & the Papas, with Mackenzie Phillips, Spanky McFarlane (of the group Spanky and Our Gang) and Denny Doherty. Throughout the rest of his life, Phillips toured with various versions of this group.

Phillips was divorced from Waite in 1985. In 1986, his best-selling autobiography, Papa John, was published. With Terry Melcher, Mike Love and his former Journeyman colleague Scott McKenzie, he co-wrote the number 1 single for the Beach Boys, "Kokomo", which was also nominated for a Grammy Award in the Best Song Written specifically for a Motion Picture or Television category (it lost to Phil Collins's "Two Hearts", from the film "Buster").

In the 1990s, his years of addiction led to the need for a liver transplant in 1992

The Mamas and the Papas were inducted into the Rock 'n' Roll Hall of Fame on Jan 12th, 1998.

John Phillips died on March 18, 2001 in Los Angeles of heart failure at the age of 65. He is interred in an outdoor crypt at Forest Lawn Cemetery (Cathedral City) near Palm Springs, California, where he had lived with his fourth wife, Farnaz. He died just days after completing sessions for a new album. Phillips 66 was released posthumously in August 2001.

(extracted from wikipedia)

San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)

If you're going to San Francisco
Be sure to wear some flowers in your hair
If you're going to San Francisco
You're gonna meet some gentle people there

For those who come to San Francisco
Summertime will be a love-in there
In the streets of San Francisco
Gentle people with flowers in their hair

All across the nation such a strange vibration
People in motion
There's a whole generation with a new explanation
People in motion people in motion

For those who come to San Francisco
Be sure to wear some flowers in your hair
If you come to San Francisco
Summertime will be a love-in there

If you come to San Francisco
Summertime will be a love-in there

Related articles:

1. John Phillips (musician),
2. Scott McKenzie,

Thursday, July 22, 2010

Oh Malaysia (With Lyrics)...Anneke Gronloh

Oh Malaysia (With Lyrics)...Anneke Gronloh

Louise Johanna (Anneke) Grönloh, Born (Tondano, Dutch East Indies, June 7 1942) is a female Dutch singer.

Anneke was Tondano, North Celebes, Dutch East Indies born and spent her early years in the Japanese occupied the Dutch East Indies in a Japanese concentration camp. Her father, a soldier, had been interned for her birth.

After the war the family moved to the Netherlands Grönloh, and Anneke grew up in Eindhoven. At the Municipal Lyceum taught Matt Monro Peter Koelewijn know and acted with him and his band Peter and his Rockets on at parties. In 1959 Anneke was the winner of a talent show, which began her career as a singer. On August 31, 1964 she married the Veronica-DJ Wim-Jaap van der Laan. He died in 2004.

Anneke was a national celebrity in the early sixties and Dutch first real teen idol. In this period they controlled the Dutch charts with record-breaking hits like Burning Sand, Paradiso, Surabaya and Cimeroni. In her wake she drew teen stars like Willeke Alberti, Rob de Nijs and Trea Dobbs them. At the height of her fame, in 1964, Anneke Gronloh took part in the Eurovision Song Contest with the song You are my life, which it received the Audience. She ended with a joint tenth place in Belgium. At the end of the 60s she also began an international singing career.

In 2000 Anneke was named "Singer of the Century" because the record that copies of her single "Burning Sand" was sold. In the same year she was also a participant in the television program Big Brother VIPS.


Tuesday, July 20, 2010

Top 25 Most Visited Tourist Destinations in America

According to Forbes Com., the list of top 25 most visited tourist destinations in America,Times Square is the No 1 most visited tourist destination in USA. Seven of the 25 attractions are amusement parks; Disney World’s Magic Kingdom, in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, remains on top in the theme-park world. The ranking included domestic travelers and foreign tourists. Many foreign visitors however are interested in seeing the natural scenic attractions like the Grand Canyon(ranked no 20), Yosemite and Yellowstone National Parks. Most of natural scenic attractions are out of top 25 except Grand Canyon. It may be the top 25 for domestic family outing destination; may not be the top 25 tourist destinations. For foreign tourists, or even domestic tourists e.g. if not for the family outing, do you still select the same top 25?.

The following are from

1.Times Square, New York City, N.Y

Times Square, the most bustling square of New York, is known for its many Broadway theatres, cinemas and super signs.
Times Square has all sorts of fun, exciting and informative tours to explore other parts of the city. You can Choose from walking, bike, bus, food, limo, TV, landmark, ethnic or water tours.
Times Square Alliance estimates an average of more than 2,000 pedestrians traversing a block of 7th Avenue during a 15-minute weekday period.

2. The Las Vegas Strip, Nevada
Las Vegas is the most populous city in the state of Nevada, the seat of Clark County, and an internationally renowned major resort city for gambling, shopping, and entertainment.
Enticing over 31 million visitors,about 80 percent of the city’s total (39.2 million) visitors, a year with its million-gigawatt smile and globetrotting attractions, Las Vegas Strip is more than glitz and gambling. – [Source: National Scenic Byways Program]

3.National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, D.C.

National Mall & Memorial Parks contains some of the oldest protected park lands in the National Park Service.
Many of the nation’s iconic public landmarks are found in the 1,000-plus acres of the National Mall and Memorial Parks, including the Washington, Lincoln, and Jefferson Memorials, and the Korean and Vietnam War Veterans Memorials.

4. Faneuil Hall Marketplace, Boston, MA

Faneuil Hall Marketplace, which gets 20 million visitors, encompasses four historic places in one location — Faneuil Hall, Quincy Market, North Market and South Market, all set around a quaint cobblestone promenade where jugglers, magicians and musicians entertain the visitors.
There are more than 100 places to eat, shop and drink at this historic site.

5. Disney World’s Magic Kingdom, Lake Buena Vista, FL

The most popular of Disney’s Florida attractions saw a 2.5 percent increase [17.1 million] in visitation compared with 2006, according to the TEA/ERA Theme Park Attendance Report.
How the Magic Kingdom has managed to maintain its charm and appeal over the years is a lesson in simplicity. It has stayed true to its original vision, a place where families could gather in a clean and safe environment to enjoy the time they spend together.

6. Disneyland Park, Anaheim, CA

Walt Disney’s original theme park features eight themed lands with classic Disney characters, favorite attractions, live entertainment, and parades.
With nearly 15 million visitors last year, the original Disney park, had a record season according to the TEA/ERA.
Currently the park has been visited by more than 515 million guests since it opened, including presidents, royalty and other heads of state.

7. Fisherman’s Wharf/Golden Gate National Recreation Area, San Francisco, CA

The Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) is a U.S. National Recreation Area administered by the National Park Service that surrounds the San Francisco Bay area.
The Golden Gate National Recreation Area, which includes the famous orange bridge along with numerous other spaces throughout the Bay Area, draws 14.3 million visitors annually.

8. Niagara Falls, N.Y.

The Falls, which straddle the U.S.-Canadian border, have been a tourist mecca since the mid-19th century. With statistics from the Niagara Falls Tourism Bureau and Niagara Falls Brige Commission, visitors are approximated at 12 million a year.

9. Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tenn./N.C.

America’s most visited national park is neither the Grand Canyon nor Yosemite. The natural beauty and the four distinct seasons enjoyed in the GSMNP is unmatched!
With more than 800 miles of protected trails, this natural wonder hosted nearly 10 million hikers, birders and drivers last year.

10. Navy Pier, Chicago, IL

Opened in 1916, this Chicago landmark on the shore of Lake Michigan has served as a campus and military training facility.
With 8.6 million visitors, From rides to restaurants, exhibitions to entertainment, shopping to dining cruises and tour boats Navy Pier has it all – in a location unlike any other!

11. Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Ariz./Nev.

Thirty miles southeast of Las Vegas lies the U.S.’s largest man-made lake and reservoir, a recreational mecca for boaters, swimmers, fishermen and naturalists attracts 7.6 million.
Lake Mead flooded a large area of desert, covering many canyons, several small villages and relics of ancient settlements.
Some more views of lake mead.

12. Universal Studios Orlando/Islands of Adventure at Universal Orlando, FL

Like its rival Disney, Universal houses what ERA’s Christian Aaen calls a “destination complex” in Orlando, where two theme parks, Universal Studios Orlando and Universal’s Islands of Adventure, vie for 6.2 million thrill-seeking tourists.

13. SeaWorld Florida, Orlando, FL

Attendance was up one percent from the previous year for this watery theme park-one of several Orlando sites on our list. The TEA/ERA puts SeaWorld’s 2007 attendance at 5.8 million.

14. San Antonio River Walk, Texas

The Riverwalk is one of the most visited places in all of Texas and the greater San Antonio area has a world of fun and exciting things to do and see.
The San Antonio River Walk (also known as Paseo del Río) is a network of walkways around the San Antonio River, linking several major attractions one story beneath downtown San Antonio, Texas. Lined by bars, shops and restaurants.
The River Walk proclaims itself the “Number One entertainment destination in Texas,” with 5.1 million visitors a year.

15. Temple Square, Salt Lake City, UT

Temple Square is the most popular attraction in the state with five million annual visitors. This ten-acre block located in the middle of downtown Salt Lake City is Utah’s number one tourist attraction.
The Mormon church’s headquarters are here, but Temple Square is more than just a destination for Latter Day Saints.

16. Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Penn./N.J.

Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area is a beautiful part of the Appalachian Mountains with all kinds of outdoors recreation available.
This park preserves 40 miles of the middle Delaware River and almost 70,000 acres of land along the river’s New Jersey and Pennsylvania shores.
River-focused recreation is what draws nearly five million tourists to this Appalachian-ridge park on the border of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

17. Universal Studios,Hollywood, CA

Its official marketing headline is “The Entertainment Capital of LA,” though during the summer it is often advertised as “The Coolest Place in LA.”
Nearly five million star gazers and thrill seekers came last year to tour the sets of “Desperate Housewives,” “King Kong” and other Universal productions.

18. Metropolitan Museum, New York, N.Y.

Founded in 1870 (and moved to its current home in Central Park in 1880), the Met’s vast stores of art include more than two million works in its two-million-square-foot building.
It has a permanent collection containing more than two million works of art, divided into nineteen curatorial departments. The museum is also home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world.
Four and a half million visitors came to peruse some of the world’s greatest art collections, from American and European to Egyptian and the newly refurbished Greek and Roman Galleries.

19. Waikiki Beach, Oahu, Hawaii

Waikiki Beach is a legendary tourist zone on the south shore of Oahu in Hawaii. This iconic Hawaiian tourist destination, on the edge of the Honolulu neighborhood that shares is name, offers splendid views of the volcanic cone, Diamond Head.
With its droves of tourists, it also made Forbes Traveler’s list of over-hyped beaches. Upwards of 4.5 million sunbathers try to relax on its sands each year.

20. Grand Canyon, AZ

The canyon is the most famous natural attraction in the USA and possibly in the world. The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided gorge carved by the Colorado River in the U.S. state of Arizona.
It is largely contained within the Grand Canyon National Park one of the first national parks in the United States. Tourists have arrived at a much quicker rate since the canyon achieved National Park status in 1919.
A horseshoe-shaped glass Skywalk, opened in 2007, allows the nearly 4.5 million visitors a chance to experience vertigo.

21. Busch Gardens Africa, Tampa Bay, FL

Busch Gardens is the ultimate family adventure park offering an array of fascinating attractions based on exotic encounters with the African continent.
This Africa-themed park, which houses over 2,700 animals alongside the usual array of rides, restaurants and shows, attracts 4.4 million every year.

22. Cape Cod National Seashore, MA

Cape Cod National Seashore is made up of a number of beautiful beaches. It is a land of parabolic sand dunes, 19th-century lighthouses, shipwrecks, pilgrims, and piping plovers.
Sightseeing, trail and beach walking, swimming, historic building tours, fishing, and bicycling are all key activities that can be enjoyed here. The bicycle and hiking trails and sandy beaches enticed more than 4 million visitors last year.

23. SeaWorld San Diego, San Diego, CA

SeaWorld San Diego is one of the world’s premier marine adventure parks with 200 acres of world-class shows, thrilling rides and unforgettable animal encounters.
More than 4 million visitors explore the mysteries of the sea every year, with up-close animal interactions and exhilarating thrills.

24. American Museum of Natural History, NY

American Museum of Natural History, which attract 4 million visitors, has been one of the world’s preeminent science and research institutions, renowned for its collections and exhibitions that illuminate millions of years of the earth’s evolution, from the birth of the planet through the present day.
The AMNH’s 45 permanent exhibit halls contain a vast record of world history, from dinosaur fossils to the human genome.
The 18-acre campus is located in Theodore Roosevelt Park on Manhattan’s Upper West Side, and its popular overnight program gives eight-to-12-year-olds the thrill of “falling asleep in the darkened halls of one of the world’s most famous museums.”

25. Atlantic City Boardwalk, New Jersey

The Boardwalk (immortalized in the Monopoly board game) runs along the beach for four miles, skirting past casinos, hotels and shops, and connects with the Garden Pier, home to the Atlantic City Historical Museum and the Atlantic City Art Center.
Although boardwalks can be found around the world, they are especially common along the East Coast of the United States in North America, where they have many of the functions of a city street and are often tourist attractions themselves. It get 4 million visitors every year.

Monday, July 19, 2010

Can Money Buy Happiness?

Can Money Buy Happiness?

Are you happy? Are you happy with your country? Did the money you have make you happy?

A worldwide survey of more than 136,000 people in 132 countries included questions about happiness and income, and the results reveal that while life satisfaction usually rises with income, positive feelings don't necessarily follow, researchers report.

The findings, from an analysis of data gathered in the first Gallup World Poll, appear this month in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

"The public always wonders: Does money make you happy?" said University of Illinois professor emeritus of psychology Ed Diener, a senior scientist with the Gallup Organization. "This study shows that it all depends on how you define happiness, because if you look at life satisfaction, how you evaluate your life as a whole, you see a pretty strong correlation around the world between income and happiness," he said. "On the other hand it's pretty shocking how small the correlation is with positive feelings and enjoying yourself."

Like previous studies, the new analysis found that life evaluation, or life satisfaction, rises with personal and national income. But positive feelings, which also increase somewhat as income rises, are much more strongly associated with other factors, such as feeling respected, having autonomy and social support, and working at a fulfilling job.

This is the first "happiness" study of the world to differentiate between life satisfaction, the philosophical belief that your life is going well, and the day-to-day positive or negative feelings that one experiences, Diener said.

"Everybody has been looking at just life satisfaction and income," he said. "And while it is true that getting richer will make you more satisfied with your life, it may not have the big impact we thought on enjoying life."


Researchers at the University of British Columbia and the Harvard Business School have found that it's possible to buy happiness after all: when you spend money on others.n a series of studies, UBC Asst. Prof. Elizabeth Dunn found that individuals report significantly greater happiness if they spend money "pro-socially" -- that is on gifts for others or charitable donations -- rather than spending on themselves. Her findings will appear in the March 21 edition of the journal Science.


The most happy country in the world

Quantifying happiness isn't an easy task. Researchers at the Gallup World Poll went about it by surveying thousands of respondents in 155 countries, between 2005 and 2009, in order to measure two types of well-being.

The five happiest countries in the world--Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands--are all clustered in the same region, and all enjoy high levels of prosperity. The Scandinavian countries do really well. One theory why is that they have their basic needs taken care of to a higher degree than other countries. Those basic needs explain the relationship between income and well-being.

What was very significant in the ranking is ,Costa Rica is the sixth happiest country in the world and the happiest country in the Americas. According to survey, 63% of the population are happy. It beat out other richer countries like the United States. That's because social networks in Costa Rica are tight, allowing individuals to feel happy with their lot, regardless of financial success.

USA is ranked only 14th, lower than Canada(8th), Panama(12th), Brazil(12th),America is not happiest country in the world.

The full list appeared in

Malaysia & Philippines ranked 94th, even lower than Bangladesh which ranked No. 91th! Indonesia 85th, Singapore, Hong Kong & Japan is ranked 81st, Thailand 79th, South Korea 56th, Pakistan 58th. The highest Asian country is New Zealand 6th, Israel & Australia 8th, the other Asian countries higher than S Korea are mainly Arab oil producing countries, except Turkmenistan(18th). So for non oil producing Arab countries, only Turkmenistan, S Korea and Pakistan marginally higher than 50% of 155 countries, other Asian countries. Malaysia ranked lower than 2/3 of the countries. One of the most unhappy countries in the world.

Why Malaysian is not happy? when they are provided with a lot of subsidies, privileges to the majority(61.4%), political stability(ruled by one coalition party since independence)and having rich resources, government provided education and medical services, and country with no major natural disaster. The citizen have all the criteria to be happy, yet they are not happy. Something is wrong some where. Based on the survey, 80% of population is not happy and struggling, 5% is suffering, with total 85% unhappy citizen. Only 15% is happy and thriving. What are the factors that made the citizen unhappy????. Why the highest percentage are not happy? Is the country going to the right direction?. A government of a democracy country is government for the people, if the people of the country they ruled are not happy, then the government failed their KPI or performance assessment. The leaders of the nation need to do more home work of soul searching.

Money is a necessity, but it is not all; however without money, nothing can move in life. So can money buy you happiness?....what is your value on money, satisfaction, and happiness?

Just ponder......if you have all the money in the world, will you be happy?.....

Amazing Grace(奇異恩典)

The Song : Amazing Grace(奇異恩典)

Amazing Grace! How sweet the sound
That saved a wretch like me!
I once was lost, but now I'm found,
Was blind, but now I see.

'Twas grace that taught my heart to fear,
And grace my fears relieved;
How precious did that grace appear,
The hour I first believed!

"Amazing Grace" is a Christian hymn written by English poet and clergyman John Newton (1725–1807), published in 1779. With a message that forgiveness and redemption is possible regardless of the sins people commit and that the soul can be delivered from despair through the mercy of God, "Amazing Grace" is one of the most recognizable songs in the English-speaking world.

Newton wrote the words from personal experience. He grew up without any particular religious conviction but his life's path was formed by a variety of twists and coincidences that were often put into motion by his recalcitrant insubordination. He was pressed into the Royal Navy and became a sailor, eventually participating in the slave trade. One night a terrible storm battered his vessel so severely that he became frightened enough to call out to God for mercy, a moment that marked the beginning of his spiritual conversion. His career in slave trading lasted a few years more until he quit going to sea altogether and began studying theology.

Ordained in the Church of England in 1764, Newton became curate of Olney, Buckinghamshire, where he began to write hymns with poet William Cowper. "Amazing Grace" was written to illustrate a sermon on New Year's Day of 1773. It is unknown if there was any music accompanying the verses, and it may have been chanted by the congregation without music. It debuted in print in 1779 in Newton and Cowper's Olney Hymns, but settled into relative obscurity in England. In the United States however, "Amazing Grace" was used extensively during the Second Great Awakening in the early 19th century. It has been associated with more than 20 melodies, but in 1835 it was joined to a tune named "New Britain" to which it is most frequently sung today.

Author Gilbert Chase writes that "Amazing Grace" is "without a doubt the most famous of all the folk hymns", and Jonathan Aitken, a Newton biographer, estimates that it is performed about 10 million times annually. It has had particular influence in folk music, and become an emblematic African American spiritual. Its universal message has been a significant factor in its crossover into secular music. "Amazing Grace" saw a resurgence in popularity in the U.S. during the 1960s and has been recorded thousands of times during and since the 20th century, sometimes appearing on popular music charts.

(source: wikipedia,

Amazing Grace, it changes life; it touches life, it comfort life... It is the song that have been sung many times, millions of people have touched by the song, the song is still been sing daily.....the Amazing Grace.......It touches the heart of President and the highest , Abraham Lincoln, Nelson Mandela, Barack Obama , and it also touch the heart of the lowly. It touches millions,including you and me....

I once was lost, but now I'm found ... from UK, the song to to USA, then to all over the world, history was changed....

It liberalize the slaves, the blind to see... William Wilberforce (24 August 1759 – 29 July 1833) was a British politician, a philanthropist and a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his political career in 1780 and became the independent Member of Parliament for Yorkshire (1784–1812). In 1785, he underwent a conversion experience and became an evangelical Christian, resulting in major changes to his lifestyle and a lifelong concern for reform. In 1787, he came into contact with Thomas Clarkson and a group of anti-slave-trade activists, including Granville Sharp, Hannah More and Charles Middleton. They persuaded Wilberforce to take on the cause of abolition, and he soon became one of the leading English abolitionists. He headed the parliamentary campaign against the British slave trade for twenty-six years until the passage of the Slave Trade Act 1807. On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln(1809-1865) issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy. Martin Luther King(1929-1968) call loud at the step in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. " I have a dream".... which broken the final chain of racial discrimination in USA. In 1994, Nelson Mandela, who gave the final blow to the apartheid rule in South Africa and wake up the global awareness on ugly face of racial discrimination. The song changes history, and all man are equal in the eyes of God.....Amazing Grace....

In 2009, Barack Obama become the first black to become President of USA....the happening was make possible by the changes, starts from the inspiring song, Amazing Grace....without the song that move the love for equality that go against racial discrimination, that change the heart, that start the motion of the change.... I once was lost, but now I'm found.... without the change, Obama will not be able to become President of USA and make history....Amazing Grace.....

The song is living, it changes lives, it will continue to be sing and change lives. It is the amazing grace from above....

The Amazing sweet the sound.....

and the movie, Amazing Grace...

Amazing Grace is a 2006 film directed by Michael Apted about the campaign against the slave trade in 19th century Britain, led by William Wilberforce, who was responsible for steering anti-slave trade legislation through the British parliament. The title is a reference to the hymn "Amazing Grace" and the film also recounts John Newton's writing of the hymn and highlights his influence on Wilberforce.

The film premiered at the closing of the Toronto Film Festival on September 16, 2006 and its US premiere was at the opening of the Heartland Film Festival, Indianapolis, Indiana on October 19, 2006, after which director Michael Apted participated in a question and answer session. It also was screened as the centrepiece of the annual Santa Barbara International Film Festival.

The film's wider release was on February 23, 2007 through IDP and Samuel Goldwyn Films, which coincided with the 200th anniversary of the date the British parliament voted to ban the slave trade.





约翰•牛顿的奇迹-Amazing Grace

约翰•牛顿(John Newton 1725-1807)本是一名从事黑奴贸易的船员,他不但不信神,还喜欢嘲笑周围的信徒,甚至捉弄辱骂他们。但1748年5月10日,约翰迎来了他人生的重要转折。这天他的船在海上遇到风暴并陷入了非常危险的状态,在几乎失去希望的时候,约翰突然回想起自己的过去,第一次从心底忏悔并向上帝做了祈祷。后来约翰的船竟然挺过了风暴,又奇迹般地克服了食物、淡水和靠岸等种种问题,生还了。



约翰的故事本身似乎只是在说一个人如何良心发现的。但令人感兴趣的是他于1765年写下的赞美诗,这首诗后来配上曲子就成了现在著名的《Amazing Grace》(全部歌词)。前两段歌词是这样的:

Amazing Grace! How sweet the sound
That saved a wretch like me!
I once was lost, but now I'm found,
Was blind, but now I see.

'Twas grace that taught my heart to fear,
And grace my fears relieved;
How precious did that grace appear,
The hour I first believed!

很明显,这首诗里融合了约翰对那次风暴的回忆,但值得注意的是,作者赞美恩典时没有强调他奇迹般的生还或上帝的“力量”,而是说:“I once was lost, but now I'm found, Was blind, but now I see.”(我曾经迷失,现在我找到了,曾经盲目,现在我看到了。)约翰的“迷失”指的不是方向而是自我,盲目也不是视力残疾,而是利欲熏心。




“'Twas grace that taught my heart to fear, And grace my fears relieved;”(恩典教会了我恐惧,又是恩典把我从恐惧中解放了出来)。前一个恐惧指的是面对生命的脆弱时产生的,对某种神圣东西的敬畏;后一种恐惧是对失去世俗性东西(比如说金钱地位名誉)的恐惧。当一个人从低级欲望中解放出来时,他是不会再为或许无法满足这些欲望而害怕了。相反,被解放了的心灵中产生的平和与充实,却是任何东西都无法代替的——Amazing Grace。


Related articles/web sites/books:

1. 约翰·牛顿-Amazing Grace, Chinese)
2. Amazing Grace: The Story of John Newton ,
4. Abraham Lincoln ,

Saturday, July 17, 2010

Gua Musang(話望生), Kelantan

Map of Gua Musang

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Gua Musang(話望生) is a town in Kelantan state. It is a timber town, with timber loging and sawn milling as their main activities. Other than timber related business, agriculture is also dominant there, now eco-tourism seems to start there. I have been to Gua Musang a few times, at that time Fully Inn has not yet constructed. The land at Gua Musang new town has already having some occupation, but still not completely occupied. There was some housing development outside the town. It must be in late 90s. The Simpang Pulai - Cameron Highland -Gua Musang road is not yet constructed. The only way to Gua Musang is from Kota Bharu- Kuala Krai way. From Kuala Lipis train is the popular transport. Kuala Lipis - Padang Tunku-Gua Musang road is long and winding, normally travel by timber lorries. I have traveled from both ways, Kuala Lipis and Kota Bahru, even try train from Kuala Lipis to Gua Musang, and Gua Musang to Pasir Mas. I love the train, they called it Jungle Train now.

Gua Musang is not only the name of the town, it is also the largest district in Kelantan. Gua Musang is administered by the Gua Musang District Council. Gua Musang district is bordered by the state of Pahang to the south, Terengganu to the east, Perak to the west and the Kelantanese districts of Kuala Krai and Jeli to the north. It is a small railway town about 160 kilometers south of Kuala Krai. The town lies on the railway line from Gemas to Kota Bharu. Some called it Ulu Kelantan.

Nenggiri Ulu, which is part of Ulu Kelantan, now called Gua Musang, has a cave system where evidence of neolithic life has been found and the present orang asli community are said to be their descendents.research done has unveiled strong suspicions that there was a a pre-Islamic Malay Kingdom in Ulu Kelantan from where the legendary Princess Ruler of Kelantan - "Puteri Saadon" - originated from.

In the old days, Gua Musang is famous for gold mining, the gold mine was at Kampong Pulai, a Chinese village town near to Gua Musang, where gold mining by Chinese have been 600 years of history, and it provides evidence that Chinese may have been to Kelantan long before the Admiral Cheng Ho to Malacca. Most of early Chinese were from Pattani area(Note: In the old days Kelantan was once ruled by Siam, Pattani, Sri Vijaya... need to open the history book again).

Historically, Gua Musang is also the only town declared by CPM(Communist Party of Malaya) as liberated area; but after 5 days of occupation it was recaptured by the British, then the colonist of Malaya. It is considered as Black area by the administration, frequent curfew, military action taken place in the district during the late 40s to 70s.

The name of Gua Musang

Gua Musang literally means "Cave of the civet cat". Gua is Malay word for cave, and Musang is the term for civet cat. On the eastern side of this town stands Bukit Gua Musang, a barren hill of rocks and deceptive stone-steps running 105 meters high. It stands in a commanding position, with a huge cave running into its interior and is about meters away from the other green tree-covered hills. From a distance, this hill looks like a stone pillar with a big crack which nearly splits it vertically into two equal halves. Between the hill and the town, there runs a railway track.

It was believed that long ago this town was inhabited by some superstitious hunters who made offerings of animals in front of the cave of Bukit Gua Musang. One afternoon a raging storm broke out and the huts of the hunters were destroyed. At the height of the storm a bolt of lightning struck the summit of the hill and nearly split it in two. The hunters, believing that the God of the Cave was angry with them, knelt down and began to pray. As they were praying they saw a huge pack of civet cats (or musang in Malay) running into the cave. At once, they seized their bows and arrows and lay in wait for the foxes. They waited the whole evening but the foxes did not emerge, not even when the storm had stopped. From then on, the inhabitants called the cave Gua Musang.

A month after this strange event, seven young hunters climbed the hill but only one came back alive. He told the villagers that when he and his six companions were halfway up the hill, a length of stone staircase appeared before them. They climbed the staircase and upon reaching the summit they found a tree, under which, stood a bowl of pure water. The young men, with the exception of one, drank the water in the bowl to quench their thirst. Before the others could persuade him to drink, the bowl vanished. They grew afraid and quickly began to descend. Suddenly a blood-chilling cry was heard. The hunter turned quickly but it was too late! His six friends had disappeared from sight. He rushed down the slope but there was no sign of any dead bodies at the bottom of the hill.

He concluded that the "God of the Cave" had taken his friends and had spared him because he had not drunk the water in the bowl. Most of the villagers did not believe the young man's story. They were sure that the other six must have slipped and fallen, but the bodies of the missing hunters were never found.

The name of the town is from the name of the cave, Gua Musang. But the Chinese named it as Hua-wang-sheng(話望生), literally means "words hoping for life" or is it translate from Malay word Gua Musang. The Chinese there are mostly Hakka Chinese, especially the gold miners in Pulai. Why call it Hua-wang-sheng(話望生)?is it because the place is end of the road for gold miners, and it need to go for a new life outside?...Noted in the old days, there was no road to Gua Musang, you need to travel by boat, not even railway.


By car
1. From Kota Bahru

2. From Kuala Lipis, Pahang

3. From Simpang Pulai, Perak(near Ipoh)
Second East-West Highway, Federal Route (Malay: Lebuhraya Timur-Barat Kedua) is a highway in Peninsular Malaysia which connects Simpang Pulai in Perak to Gua Musang in Kelantan. The highway is expected to be extended further east to Kuala Terengganu in the future. This highway features a four-lane carriageway from Simpang Pulai to Cameron Highlands and a two-lane carriageway from Cameron Highlands to Gua Musang. It is notorious for its many sharp corners which increase the risk of road accidents.

By Bus

KL - Gua Musang
Kuala Lipis - Gua Musang
Kota Bahru- Gua Musang

By Train
1. KL- Gemas - Gua Musang
2. Singapore- Gemas -Gua Musang
3. Tumpat - Gua Musang

Tourist attractions

Gua Musang is the northern gateway to Taman Negara (National Park), which is situated in the southeastern part of Gua Musang district. The untouched tropical rainforest in Taman Negara is among the oldest in the world. It is well known for its biodiversity and is home to many endangered species of animals and plants.

1. Bukit Gua Musang
Gua Musang is surrounded by limestone hills and caves, which have become popular with cavers and rock climbers. The cave of Gua Musang is located immediately behind the town’s railway station and is reached by a steep scramble up the hillside

2. Rock Climbing & tracking
The small village of Merapoh in Pahang which is just south of Gua Musang serves as a popular starting point for those who want to scale Gunung Tahan.

3. Taman Ethnobotani
Taman Ethnobotani, where there are rooms and chalets for rent. The park was set up in 1997 for the collection and propagation of medicinal herbs. This recreational and nature park is administered by the Kelantan Selatan Development Authority (Kesedar).

Some 3km from Gua Musang, the park covers 38ha of lush greenery and limestone outcrops. One small hill is located right at the entrance of Taman Ethnobotani, and here we got to watch climbers practise their moves.

The park holds many climbing routes. Apart from climbing, there are other outdoor activities like rope and wooden obstacle courses, and flying fox and abseiling. Visitors can also learn to make traps and pick up jungle survival skills. Nature lovers will enjoy visiting the deer and ostrich farms and the medicinal herb garden.

4. Nenggiri River: River Rafting
Nenggiri River is a favourite among those who enjoy river rafting. There is also a rafting race, called Nenggiri Challenge. Archaeological sites can be found in caves, such as Gua Cha, Chawan and Jaya, which are situated along the river.

5. Railway station

The railway station is one of the heritage railway station around

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6. Jungle Train
The Jungle Railway is the railway line serving the East Coast states of Kelantan and Pahang in Malaysia. Officially the East Coast Railway line, it branches of the West Coast Trunk line at Gemas on the border of Johor and Negeri Sembilan and goes through the forested heart (hence the nickname "Jungle Railway") of Peninsular Malaysia to Tumpat, a small town on the East Coast near Kota Bharu, Kelantan. The first stretch of the East Coast Line between Gemas and Bahau is opened in 1910. It was however destroyed in 1941 during Japanese occupation. The railway service only resumed in 1953. In 1953, Golden Blowpipe Express drawn by the locomotive Coronation, carrying the High Commissioner Sir Gerald Templer from Kuala Lipis in Pahang to Kota Bharu [i.e. Baharu] in Kelantan on the first journey on the line since 1941, when the track was destroyed. A photo was taken on July 13 1953 at Gua Musang(

Pulai Gold Mine Town

Another interesting place to visit in Gua Musang is a Chinese temple Shui Yue Gong(水月宮)in Kampung Pulai(布賴), which is purportedly 400 years old. Kampong Pulai is 14 km from Gua Musang, an isolated place, as only in 1988, a 7 km road connected to Gua Musang. It was reported that the Hakka Chinese came to Gua Musang 600 years ago, long before Admiral Cheng Ho arrival in Malacca. Pulai was founded in 1425 by two brothers, Lim Pak Yen and Lim Ghee Yee, who fled China. They come via Sungai Galas. The brothers came here in search of gold. Once word got out, there was a gold rush and a small settlement was created. As the gold supply slowly diminished, people started planting padi to survive(ref:

Pulai has a temple reputed to be 400-500 years old, reportedly the second oldest temple in the country after the Cheng Hoon Teng temple (1646) in Malacca. However some said it may be even older than Cheng Hoon Teng....

The Pulai Swee Nyet Keung Buddhist temple and its surrounding village was burnt down by the Japanese in 1941. The temple was rebuilt in 1970 and is quite small, but it has an interesting collection of ancient cannon parts.

Across the river from the temple is a limestone hill with a new temple. Bukit Tok Cu is also known as Princess Mountain and a temple is being constructed on top of it. The workers told us that a man had a vision of steps being built up the hill in 1984, but work on the temple only started in 1997. However, a shrine was already in existence in the upper cave when an archaeological team dug there in 1991

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History of Pulai
1425 - Pulai was founded in 1425 by two brothers, Lim Pak Yen and Lim Ghee Yee
1782 - A record by a sailor from China who visited Kelantan, during Qing Dynasty reported that there are Chinese living in Kelantan, and some Hakka Chinese are gold mining in Pulai. Historical record reported earlier arrival. Initially the gold miners depended on the supplies of rice and other provision from Kota Bahru and other areas through the river transportation. There were social contact with the Malay and Cina Bandar from Kota Bahru.
1825-1886 - Dsipute with Temenggong over the supply and trading of rice. Thousands of villagers was killed (全村幾千人被當地王族所殺). This incident may have start the subsistence farming of Pulai gold miners, and the village began the social isolation from outside world. Unlike the Cina Bandar(Town Chinese) and Cina Kampong(Village Chinese), who assimilated into the Malay culture and speak local Malay dialet, the Pulai Hakka Chinese even inter marriage with the orang asli(native) and Siamese, retain their distinctive Hakka culture. This is mainly due to the social isolation, and physical remote of the Pulai village, there are few Malay lived near the Pulai village. There were no road, no railway to the village.
1930s - The construction of East Coast Railway open Ulu Kelantan(now Gua Musang) to the outside world, but Pulai village remained isolated.
1933 - S.M.Middlebrook in 1933 when he visited the village, the village had existed more than 200 years ago.
1942 - Japanese plane bombed the place and destroyed the village. Pulai people further moved into jungle and become self sufficient. But they are no more socially isolated from the outside world, the communist or MPAJA in the jungle become quasi protector of the villagers in the jungle.
1945- When the world ended, MPAJA become a legal political party MCP(Malayan Communist Party), Pulai villagers caught between the political cold war of the superpower, communist and capitalist colonist(British)
1947 - The colonist seeing the long term position will be threaten by the MCP, begin to arrest the MCP members and unionists. British also declared MCP illegal, MCP returned to jungle and started arm struggle in the jungle. Pulai and Gua Musang was view as Black Area by the British colonist government.
1948 - Formation of the Federation. The British relocated the villagers to new village or xincun(新村)at Kuala Trengganu(10 miles from Kuala Trengganu), Kuala Lipis(Pahang), Kota Tinggi- Kulai(Johore) under the strategic Briggs Plan by the British colonist to avoid locals supporting the communists, the period was historically called Malayan Emergency(1948-1960) (被英國人集體疏散到登嘉樓20哩外、彭亨瓜拉立卑及柔佛州古來). Today, UNHCR will call it IDP(Internally Displaced Person), a violation of human right.
1949 - Formation of MCA(Malaysian Chinese Association). About 30% of the villagers were forced to move to new village near Kota Tinggi, Johor. Another 30% to the new village at Gua Musang town.
1952 - The other 30% resettled in Pulai Baru, 10 miles from Kuala Trengganu, the capital of Trengannu state. Pulai villagers faced communication problem due to long term social isolation. Their inability to speak Malay, English, and other more popular Chinese dialects, restrict their employment prospect, they mainly worked as odd job workers.
1957 - Independence of Malaya from British
1960 - Malayan Emengency ended, the villagers returned from the new villages to rebuilt Pulai village(緊急狀態結束後,布賴人又帶著當初抱走的神像,回來重建家園和水月宮,再次把荒蕪的土地變成家園。) Many Pulai villagers from Johor and Trengganu saved sufficient money for them to return to their ancestral land. However some young people, who have learn new skills, decide to remain and work outside Pulai. The villagers revert back to cash economy by planting rubbers and paddy. They become socially isolated and politically sensitive, reluctant to disclose their political inclination.
1978 - PAS(Islamic Party of Malaysia) lost the state. PAS have been control the state of Kelantan since 1959, and lasted 18 years (1959–1978); PAS was under the coalition Barisan Nasional from 1974-78. Barisan National was formed in 1972.
1984 - Kelantan state government approved gold mining by the private companies in the area round Pulai. (苦難重重的布賴在80年代再次面臨巨變。這次也是因為金礦。吉蘭丹州政府於1984年批准私人公司在布賴和附近一帶採金). The Pulai fluviatile gold placer deposit stretches along 17 km of the upper reaches of S. Galas. Malaysia Mining Corporation had proved-up sizeable reserves following drilling and bulk testing during 1979–1983.

1987 - The authority started to acquire the land, regardless that the residents have been living there for generations, may be since 600 years ago, without compensation. Total 146 acres of land was acquired. According to the report by S.M.Middlebrook in 1933 when he visited the village, the village had existed more than 200 years ago. The report was in 1933. It was reported there were 700-800 residents there planting paddy, and the skin are dark due to mixed marriage with the native or Siamese(並於1987年開始強行征用 146英畝土地,共63名地主受影響,再次面對失去家園的慘痛,而且毫無賠償。經過多年的爭取,布賴村民雖然改善了原來毫無賠償與沒有安頓的惡劣條件,卻再也保不住他們世外桃源一般的田園生活,被迫搬到簡陋的“新村”聚居,而且連葬在家園的祖先墳地也要遷移,以免被挖金活動破壞。) Later after some appeals, the state government granted leasehold land of 30 to 60 years tenure to the villagers for the new village(經過三四年的爭取之後,受影響的村民獲得政府發給新村地契,但也只有30年到60年的期限). Normally under restrictive Kelantan land law, leasehold 30-60 years are for non-Kelantanese, a leasehold land of 99 years or freehold land is the norm for local Kelantanese. But the Pulai villagers like the Cina Kampong or Siamese in Tumpat, Wakaf Bahru area have been living in Kelantan for more than 3 generations, reported 600 years ago, they should be treated as local Kelantanese, a 99 years leasehold is expected by the villagers. A disappointment for villagers.

1988 - a 7 km road connected to Gua Musang was completed; not for the villagers but for the incoming commercial gold mining activities.

1990- Change of government, PAS(Islamic Party of Malaysia)took over the state from UMNO of Barisan National. Nik Abdul Aziz bin Nik Mat become the Mentri Besar(equivalent to Chief Minister of the state). Since 1990, with re-elections in 1995, 1999 and 2004, PAS had ruled the state.

1998 - MOU was signed between Mentri Besar of Kelantan Dato’ Haji Nik Abdul Aziz bin Nik Mat and NSW State Treasurer, Minister for Energy, and Minister for State Development Mr Michael Egan on 16th Feb 1998 in the signing ceremony at Macquarie Tower, Sydney, NSW. YAB Tuan Guru Dato’ Menteri Besar also gave the letter of appointment to Peter Anderson, appointing him as advisor of Kelantan state government in the commence and investment in NSW, Australia. Kelstone Sdn. Bhd, a company under state corporation, PKINK(PERBADANAN KEMAJUAN IKTISAD NEGERI KELANTAN)had discussion with Austral Malaysian Mining Ltd. on the gold mining at Pulai, Gua Musang.(source: Mr Anderson is also Chair of Austral Malaysian Mining Ltd, Pulai Mining Sdn Berhad(Source: CHW 2002 annual Report, Pulai Mining Sdn Bhd is Malaysian mining arm of Austral Malaysian Mining Ltd, a NSW company.

Will the Pulai villagers benefit from the development?....

Map of Kampong Pulai Baru, Kuala Trengganu

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“以前布賴一片青翠,都是田園,遠遠一戶人家,可能相隔半公里,屋子周圍都是牛羊雞鴨,山水直接引到家裡。現在住在新村裡……”他覺得,現在的生活越來越與“外面”沒有甚麼兩樣。 田地被政府徵用過後,失去田園的布賴人只好再次出發,開芭砍草,尋找新的謀生方式。 “90%人到山坡上種植橡膠,也有人種可可和榴槤等果樹。”經過三四年的爭取之後,受影響的村民獲得政府發給新村地契,但也只有30年到60年的期限。布賴人對這片土地的眷戀再次受到扭曲和壓制。






(extract from 小村大歷史布賴600年山中傳奇, 亞洲眼/第16期•文:賴碧清•2007.07.30)


(extract from 清代馬來西亞客家人的觀音信仰,

Related articles on Pulai



3.Sepintas lalu mengenai sejarah Kampung Pulai(Penyunting: Kenny Chee Sien Chen)

4.Image of community in a Chinese Malaysian Settlement(Sharon A.Carstens,PH.D. Cornell University, 1980)
5. S.M.Middlebrook, M.C.S, Pulai: An Early Chinese settlement in Kelantan, Journal of the Malaysia Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society Vo1.11 (2). pp152.


There are a few accommodation options in Gua Musang

1. A1 Tourism's Hotel & Guest House
2. Kesedar Inn
18300 Gua, Musang can be contacted by phone +609 901229 or fax +609 902131
Budget hotel, no star
3. Hotel Gua Musang
Lot 1985-1986, Bandar Baru, Gua Musang
Tel: 609-9122929
4. Evergreen Hotel
Jalan Besar, Gua Musang
Budget hotel, no star
Tel: 609-9122273
5. Hotel Merling
No. 10, Jalan Besar, Gua Musang
Budget hotel, no star
Tel: 609-9121813
6. Fully Inn
75, Jalan Pekan Lama Gua Musang 18300 Kelantan
Tel: 609-9123311

Durian Kunyit King(貓山王)

THE Musang King durian from Malaysia is so delicious that Stanley Ho, Macau’s Gambling King had to send his personal jet to Singapore to purchase these “Musang King Durian” also known as “durian kunyit” or “Mao San Wong” (in cantonese). Source reported that Ho’s worker wanted to buy 98 durians but only managed to get 88 as supply was low due to adverse weather. China Press reported that Ho spent about RM4,800 worth (S$2,071) of the durian from the 818 Durian Stall in the island republic. In Singapore, the Musang King durian costs about RM38 (S$16.40) per kilo. Ho also shared the king of fruits with his friend Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing by giving him 10 durians(source: The Star,2010). For those who do not know the thorny fruit, Durian, it is a tropical fruit, considered king of the fruits. The taste and aroma is strong, you either love it or hate it, it taste like heaven or hell...

(note for more info on durian fruit refer

Durian Kunyit is originate from Gua Musang. It is originally called Durian Kunyit by Malay. Kunyit is the Malay word for turmeric. The durian is called Durian Kunyit is because of the flesh is yellow in color, resembles kunyit, which was also used for nasi kunyit. The durian is rebranded "Musang King" or “Mao San Wong”(貓山王) in cantonese. It has small seeds, and it’s texture is sweet, tender and with a powerful aroma”.. This Musang King durian can reach as high as 3kg of weight for each durian. The pricing is by weight ,1kg of these durian can peak as high as RM28 to Rm30 per kilogram. So a 3 kg durian will cost RM90 or US$30 per durian fruit. What Ho bought may be more expensive because he bought it in Singapore or with heavier weight.

But it seems the best is Raja Kunyit, better than Kunyit; don't believe then read the article "Chung has a nose for business"(2007), The Star dated July 9, 2007; Unless Chung or the reporter make a mistake that Raja Kunyit is Musang King, Chung said Raja Kunyit is the best durian, and Ang Heh (Red Prawn)is the 2nd, and the third is the humble but pungent jungle durians. D24 is not in his list.....Is Raja Kunyit similar to Musang King?.....

Outside Gua Musang
Fort Brooke
A lonely police and military post near Cameron Highland were visited. It was built by 22nd SAS to controlled the east area of Cameron Highland where communist activities from Gua Musang to Cameron Highland can be stopped.

Built near orang asli village, it was commanded by military or police and it was famously published by Roy Follows who commanded the fort on his book "Jungle Beat".

Fort Brooke was built with 3 machineguns emplacement protected by sandbags and later concrete to protected the fort from ambushes. The fort also had its helicopter landing pad and constantly re-supplied with airdrops from Dakotas and Valettas. The fort also were barbed wires and everyone inside the perimeter were 24 hours alerted. Patrols also were sent out to patrolled nearby area.

Later it was commanded by Royal Malaysian Police until late 80s when it was demolished and abandoned. Today, the new name Post Brooke were moved slightly south of the original location and connected by new highway routes from Cameron Highland to Gua Musang. The old fort were overgrown and forgotten.

Gunong Stong & Gua Ikan
Go up north to Kelantan and spend a weekend at the ever-popular Stong Waterfalls; make a trip to the Gua Ikan caves and visit the Krai town. Sweat it out hiking (2hrs) from Stong Resort, crossing the waterfall route (with safety chain links) to Jelawang camp (1000ft) where campers camp out in the wild. You could visit the upper waterfalls to dip your toes in the cool waters and have a well-deserved swim, or you could just laze around and enjoy the natural "Jacuzzi" effect of the falls

Motorbiking to Cameron Highland

95km route from Kg Raja to Gua Musang

Kuala Lipis

Kuala Koh

"Kuala Koh is the new entry point to Taman Negara. This is still a lightly visited area with superb wilderness and pristine rivers flowing down from the mountains of Tahan, Perlis, Penumpu and Gagau."

Kuala Koh is the new entry point to Taman Negara on its northern border. This is still a lightly visited area of superb wilderness and pristine rivers flowing down from the mountains of Tahan, Perlis, Penumpu and Gagau. These rivers are lined with giant trees like the tualang and the neram, the fruit of the latter providing food for the kelah, Malaysia's premier river sportfish.

Kuala Koh houses the headquarters of this part of Taman Negara. Chalets and dormitories are available and a small cafe serves local fare upon request. Fishing waters are found as close as 10 minutes boat ride from Kuala Koh. For the more adventurous, camping-cum-fishing packages are available where tent accommodation, meals and fishing guides are provided. This, however, must be arranged well in advance.

Kuala Koh boasts pleasant natural settings and lush rainforest greenery. At the same time, it is equipped with facilties that will make your visit here a comfortable one. It is ideal for nature activities such as jungle-trekking, bird watching, river rafting, fishing and mountain climbing.

Accommodation - Kuala Koh
There are 6 chalets and a 74-bed hostel. Each chalet costs RM50 per night while the hostel costs RM12 per person per night. Campers are charged RM2 each. Each visitor must obtain an entrance permit at RM1 per person. Fishing licence costs RM10 each while camera licence is RM5 per camera.

For more information on Kuala Koh, please contact the Wildlife Department office in Gua Musang at 609-9122940 or Kuala Koh Country Village (Kelantan National Park) at 609-7431 603.

Reference/related articles:

1.清代馬來西亞客家人的觀音信仰, by 王琛發,
2. 小村大歷史布賴600年山中傳奇, 亞洲眼/第16期•文:賴碧清•2007.07.30)
5. Facebook:
5. Surprises aplenty caving(2006), by Liz Price,The Star;
6. Histories, cultures, identities: studies in Malaysian Chinese worlds(2005), by Sharon A. Carstens, Singapore University Press, Singapore. Pg 57 to Pg 81
7. The New Villages in Malaysia - the Journey Ahead(2005), by Lim Hin Fui & Fong Tian Yong, INSAP(Institute of Strategic Analysis and Policy Research), MCA ( article on new village)

Kemaman(甘馬挽), Trengganu

Map of Kemaman(甘馬挽)

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Kemaman is a district in Terengganu, Malaysia. It is situated on the coast of the South China Sea. Kemaman district is bordered by Dungun to the north and the state of Pahang to the south. It is at the southest district of Trengannu state.

Kemaman is administered by the Kemaman Municipal Council. The town of Chukai(朱盖)is Kemaman's administrative and economic centre. Datuk Ahmad Shabery Cheek is the Member of Parliament for Kemaman. He is also the Malaysia Youth and Sports Minister.

Kemaman is a fishing village town, and a transits town for the East Coast. Historically it was benefited from the spill off effect of iron mine activities in Kuala Dungun, Bukit Besi; and timber logging in the area. Iron mining however come to an end in the late 70s and early 80s. But after the opening of Kertih Petronas processing plant, the Kemaman Port, and the opening of Teluk Kalong Industrial Estate(where famous Pewaja is located). Kemaman saw the development come to the place. In the early 80s, the housing development by the Malay development company, Mohd Yusoff also bought some activities to the town. At that time the state assemblyman for Kemaman was the Mentri Besar the late Dato Seri Amar Diraja Tan Sri Wan Mokhtar Ahmad from 1974 to 1999. This obviously have a beneficial effect on Kemaman. The opposition and folks were then saying, that the state revenue from the petroleum were all used on the development at the south Trengganu.

Another strange thing about Kemaman; they always calling the Chukai town, not Chukai but Kemaman, the name of the district. Are you going to Kemaman or Cukai?. We normally talk about Kemaman, and not Chukai.

Kemaman is called Kam-ma-sik(甘馬挽), similar to the name of the small Malay town Kemasik in the north, near the beach. Kemasik is located midway between Kerteh and Kijal. There is a beach called Kemasik Beach (Pantai Kemasik in Malay), which is the main attraction in the town. There is a Hananese new village nearby, Kampong Air Jernih. Is it because the earlier town center was located at Kemasik? the Chinese call Chukai town with the name "kan-ma-sik"?.... What is the meaning of Kemasik?.... Another confusion arise, be careful when you mention kam-ma-sik or Kemaman or Kemasik?.....

Kemaman Food

When you come to Kemaman, the first thing people will advise you, drink the Hainan coffee at Kemaman

1. Kedai kopi Hai Peng (海濱咖啡店)

Hai Peng coffee shop is the most famous coffee shop in the east coast, even before the WW2. It used to be at the timber shop, but now a modern 3 storey shop house was constructed. A small old coffee shop have become a modern cafe. Their famous specialties was the Hainan coffee, the toasted bread with kaya. In the old days, nmost people travel from West coast to East Coast, especially to Kuala Trengganu or Kota Bharu, will stop by at Kemaman to have a cup of Hainan coffee. This is mainly to rest for a while on their long journey. Kemaman is a town populated by Hainan Chinese, obviously Hainan coffee is famous. The uniqueness of the coffee shop in those day at the wooden shop, was there are many Malay patron too at the shop, and serving Nasi Dagang , Nasi Lemak, and Curry puff etc. Slowly the shop become popular and famous. The most famous and the best in east coast.

The current owner is the younger generation, I have bought some coffee powder back, it cannot compare with the coffee you drink in the coffee shop. May be for Hainan coffee, you need to drink when it is prepared with hot boiling water on the spot. The coffee powder is not of that class. It need the skill to recognize when the boiling water is fit for the coffee. It is the skill, not the name....... may be Hainan coffee is not Nescafe...need to drink on the spot at Kopitiam....

Note: The Chinese called coffee shop, kopitiam(ko-pi-tiam), kopi is coffee, and tiam is shop, now even Malay also call coffee shop as "kopitiam" or kedai kopi.

Hai Peng Kopitiam
3753 Jalan Sulaimani
24000 Kemaman
Tel No: 09 - 859 7810

2. Restoran Tong Juan, Stuffed Crab(東源餐室)

Restoran Tong Juan is located at K117, Jalan Sulaimani, Chukai/Kemaman. Stuffed crab only a hit during the economy boom of late 80s and early 90s. The food become famous must be the fresh crabs available at the river in Kemaman.

Kuala Kemaman(甘马昔渔村)

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There is a small Malay coastal town called Kuala Kemaman, famous for satar. Coming from Cukai town, after the bridge over Sungai Kemaman, from Route 3 turning to a side road to the fishing village. Satar is a type of otak-otak or fish cake wrapped in banana leaves and cooked over a grill. This delicacy can also be found along road side stalls and food bazaars. This dish is cooked-wrapped in a banana leaf over a low-fire barbecue. Fish meat, shallots and ginger are pounded to a paste and wrapped in banana leaf before it is cooked. Satar is an interesting blend of succulent boneless fish marinated in spices, wrapped in banana leaves and grilled over a flaming charcoal fire. Its sweet taste is tinged with delicate smell of the wrapping, making it a great appetizer and a healthy snack.

The satar is beautiful and delicious, which must not be missed. I can eat many sticks of Satar.... and still feel not enough.

Kampong Air Jernih(亚依仁耐村)

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The name Kampong Air Jernih is the Malay name for Clear Water Village. Kampong is Malay word for village, Air is Malay word for water, Jernih is Malay word for clear. Kampong Air Jernih is literally Clear Water Village. The Chinese used the Malay name for the village town.

Kampong Air Jernih(亚依仁耐村)is a new village located near to Kamasik town. It may be the only new village in Trengganu state. The village used to have 5,000 villagers, 96% Hainan Chinese. The villagers are mainly rubber small holders, planting rubber. Now only less than 1,000 villagers are left, mainly old people. There is one Chinese primary school(乐群小学) in the village town,the school was built and financed by the Hainanese villagers. The founders are 吕先传、史福章、许升俊、林明育. (该村的一座学校“乐群小学”的确是海南先贤创办,创办人为吕先传、史福章、许升俊、林明育等人,我们也会见了已故符国英先辈的后人,符曾是该村村长,1891年出生,1984年逝世,亨龄93岁。1959年受苏丹殿下封赐PPM勋衔,受封时所获得的证书是用爪夷文写成的,纸已发黄,不能借出,只好拍照带回隆展出。我们晚上在甘马挽过夜,甘马挽另一名称是朱盖). pilot's cycling trip to Air Jernih new village)

Chye Hin Railway

All the railways in Malaya are operated by KTMB; in the old days some mining companies operated private railway. One is the tin mine in Sungai Lembing, the other is Chye Hin Railway at Kemaman. All these railway lines had stopped service.

ISK(ISHIHARA SANGYO KAISHA, LTD.) purchased an iron and manganese mine in Kemaman on May, 1924.

The heavy dependence of steel-making in Japan on imported iron ore is extremely apparent. From the 1920s through the 1930s, imports accounted for 70 to 90 per cent of the nation's total iron ore needs (or 90 to 95 per cent, if imports from the overseas Japanese territories are also counted). The two biggest sources of Japan's iron ore imports were China and British Malaya, which were responsible for around 90 per cent, in some years almost 100 per cent, of total annual imports. China had been virtually the sole import source until 1920. Malaya emerged in 1921 as a new exporter to Japan, quickly expanded its importance as an iron ore supply source during the second half of the 1920s, and surpassed China in 1929. It retained its top position until 1940 (iron shipments from Malaya were discontinued in July 1941 as the US, UK and Netherlands froze Japanese assets in their territories).

The emergence of Malaya as the most important supplier to Japan is more evident from a breakdown of yearly iron ore deliveries to the Yawata Steel Works (the Imperial works, reorganized in 1934 into the Yawata Works of Japan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd.). Deliveries of Malay iron ore, which started in fiscal 1920,* surpassed those of Chinese ore in yearly total as early as fiscal 1928. Underlying this change was the unique way in which the Imperial steel mill secured the supply of its iron ore needs.

The Kemaman (Machang Stawn) mine was handicapped, compared with the Sri Medan mine,Batu Pahat in that loading of its product onto ocean carriers was virtually impossible in the rainy season (from December till March) and because transport by a light railway was required for a distance of four to seven miles (six to eleven km) from the mine to Sungei Pinan, but it was generally similar to the Sri Medan mine in other aspects of mining and conveyance. For this reason, and also because it was far smaller than the Sri Medan mine, it does not deserve any more detailed description (the above-cited Sogyo Nijunen-shi, p. 46, and Sogyo Sanjugonen o Kaiko shite, p. 48). For further details, see "Trengganu Kemaman Mangan-ko Shisatsu Hokokusho" [An inspection report on the Kemaman manganese mine, Trengganu] (incorporated into Taisho Jusannen Nanyo Kogyo Koshi Kankei), the Nanyo Kogyo Koshi, "Nanyo Kogyo Koshi Kemaman Hokokusho" A report on Kemaman by the Nanyo Kogyo Koshi, 12 April 1925, "Marai Hanto Ma-chang Stawn Tetsuzan Mangan-ko" [The manganese ore of the Machang Stawn iron mine, Malay Peninsula] and "Trengganu Kozan Jogyo Hokoku-sho (Hachigatsu-matsu Genzai.)" [A situation report on the Trengganu mine (as of the end of August)] (all incorporated into Taisho Juyonen Nanyo Kogyo Koshi Kankei).

Mining operations ceased in December 1941, when the Japanese Army invaded Malaya. Railway equipment owned by ISK, including the locomotives, remained at Pasir Gajah after the start of the Occupation. It was moved, probably during 1943, to a bauxite mine in the vicinity of Batu Pahat (Johore); confirmation of the new location, and ultimate fate of the equipment and locomotives, has yet to be substantiated.

Chye Hin commenced operations during 1926, in the forests about ten miles north of Pasir Gajah. Their line started on the south side of the Sungei Ibok, at the northern edge of Kampong Peng Yak Yah, and ran north-west alongside the river. It was extended gradually, as logging operations moved deeper into the forest. By the time of the Japanese Occupation, the railway had attained a length of almost 30 miles, winding up the valley of the Sungei Ibok to reach Ulu Paka; at the edge of the Ulu Chukai Forest reserve. For the first few miles it remained on the south bank of the river; thereafter, it crossed and re‑crossed both the river and some of its tributaries. A loop, and two branches served logging sites distant from the main line around Pasir Belaram (about ten miles from Peng Yak Yah); it is likely that these are later additions, being shown on post‑War Ordnance Survey Maps, but not on the surviving pre‑War map still retained by the Company.

During the early years, the length of the railway was such that hand-operation was adequate for requirements. However, by 1936 there was a need for locomotives. The first was constructed by the Company in 1936. A four‑wheeled diesel was evolved by mounting a Newmans road lorry engine on a substantial frame. The transmission shaft was retained, and the cross-shaft at the rear was connected on each side, by means of cogs and chains, to the rear axle! As the chains are outside the frames and wheels, a very primitive appearance has resulted. The hand‑operated gear change from the road lorry was also retained in position, on the transmission shaft, just behind the bonnet. Although cumbersome, and not particularly powerful, this machine was a considerable improvement after hand‑operation of the line. It survived until cessation of the Chye Hin railway system, and remained derelict at Pasir Gajah during 1971. In 1937 an old steam locomotive was purchased second-hand from Singapore. It survived until the 1950's, but no records of its origin or identity have yet been traced.

1938 saw the arrival of a German 0‑4‑0 mine diesel, as well as the first Ruston & Hornsby 4‑wheel diesel. A second Ruston locomotive was delivered in the following year. The German locomotive was not really suited for work on a timber line, and was never used more than necessary. It survived derelict at Pasir Gajah during 1971. One of the Ruston locomotives was of 19hp rating, both being supplied through United Engineers, the Ruston agents for Malaya. Records of these locomotives have not been retained by the agents, and perusal of the builder's list has not provided positive identification. The two locomotives were sold during 1966.

During their occupation of Malaya, the Japanese took over the Chye Hin railway, and continued some logging operations. Company records were destroyed. The Chinese owner and his son were arrested; the father died in April 1945 as the result of years of torture and ill‑treatment at the hands of the Kempetai (Secret Police). However, the son survived to assume control of the Company at the beginning of 1946, subsequently remaining at work until his death in 1967.

A further Ruston was ordered in 1946, and delivered in the following year. As in the case of earlier locomotives from this builder, the identity has not been established. It too was sold during 1966.

Timber operations were disrupted by Communist terrorist activities during the early part of the "Emergency" in 1948. Later, the Security Forces imposed a ban on continuance of operations by the Company in the Peng Yak Yah area. However, new concessions were granted, in forests to the north-west of Pasir Gajah. During 1950, the rails and equipment were moved from Peng Yak Yah to the new site. The course of the old line was abandoned, and has since become completely over-grown; no accessible traces now remain.

At the time of the move, the bed of the former ISK line was still intact, although somewhat over-grown; it suited the needs of Chye Hin Ltd. The Company established its terminal on the west bank of Sungei Pinang, rather than take the railway across the river as the ISK had done before the Occupation. From the terminal the Chye Hin rails followed the course of the old ISK line west for some three miles, passing Pasir Gajah village. Near the Eleventh Mile Stone, at the west end of the village, the Chye Hin line diverged from the course of the old ISK line; it crossed the road on the level, and plunged into the forest where now the Company had its concessions. Once inside the forest, the course of the line tended to fluctuate, depending on the exact site of timber operations at any particular time.

Timber was conveyed on small four‑wheeled wooden frames that could be spaced under each trunk according to its size and length. These frames were connected by ropes, and ropes were also used to connect the loaded frames with the locomotive. A few 4‑wheel Hudson tipper wagons were retained, and used when any earth works were required for the line inside the forest.

Shortly after the move to Pasir Gajah, a further Ruston was ordered, again through the agents in Singapore; it was delivered during 1951. Unfortunately, the identity has not been substantiated. This locomotive was also sold during 1966.

In 1952 the Company constructed a second four wheel diesel. This had a transverse engine, with chain drive inside the frames. Although the engine had been removed, the remains of this locomotive were still at Pasir Gajah in 1971. During examination, it was noted that the axle boxes were marked 'MRTC'; the Manager was not able to say whether in fact the frame had originated from a locomotive built by Motor Rail.

The final locomotive to be purchased by Chye Hin arrived in 1963. This was Ruston & Hornsby 235676, which was acquired second-hand to provide spares to maintain the other Rustons. Records show that this locomotive was built new for the Ministry of Supply. In 1946, it was sold to A. Pollock, a dealer who seems to have supplied a number of locomotives to Malaya; however, details of its whereabouts until arrival at Pasir Gajah have not yet been established. It remained derelict in the out‑house during 1971.

In the early 1960's, another company attempted to resume mining operations on the former ISK sites at Machang Sa'Tahun. The site was cleared, and various new buildings were erected in 1963, but it did not affect Chye Hin or the railway; from the outset the new company used road transport for removal of the ore. After a short time, it was found that the ore was of a very low grade with only a limited market. Operations ceased in 1964 and the plant was sold by auction in the following year.

As will be realised, the road up the valley had been substantially improved by the time that operations to resume mining at Machang Sa'Tahun commenced. As a result, the economics of maintaining a railway for removal of timber were becoming unfavourable. By 1965 bulldozers and other plant suitable for use in the forest had been purchased; arrangements were made for removal of timber by road vehicles, and the railway ceased operation. Much of the rail equipment was sold, although four older locomotives, a quantity of rails, a few tippers and some timber-carrying frames were stored in the out‑house at Pasir Gajah in June 1971. A month later it was noted that the rails had been removed.

The warm, humid climate of Malaysia encourages rapid growth of vegetation. Much of the course of the railway has been obscured and in the forests very little trace now remains visible. The climate also encourages rust, so that it is now doubtful if any of the remaining equipment at Pasir Gajah will see further use.

(source: Extract from DIESELS IN THE OUT - HOUSE,

Kemaman - the future

The proposed project by KTMB or Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad(Malayan Railway Limited) on Komuter Timur service(East Coast commuter train service) linking Kuala Terengganu to Kemaman and Kuantan by 2014.

There are many history, and heritage in Kemaman which have been lost; without proper record and preserved. The iron mining history of Dugun, Bukit Besi, Kemaman, where are the record now? Looking back, on the road toward development, have we lost something?......just like the Kemaman coffee which had lost its original taste.....

Related articles/websites:

1. 琼州人在丁加奴,
2. 追寻海南先辈的踪迹 - 潇洋 ,
3. 甘馬挽食誌, by 林金城,
4. The prewar Japanese steel industry and iron ore resources in Southeast Asia : the development of Malaysian iron ore by the Ishihara Sangyo Company(1981), by Nagura, Bunji, Japanese Experience of the UNU Human and Social Development Programme series ; 33;