Monday, September 19, 2011

Actual Voice of Dr Sun Yat-sen(孫中山)

This is the actual voice of Dr Sun Yat-sen(孫中山)in Mandarin, the father of modern China.

Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)was a Han Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" (國父), a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun was the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1911 and later co-founded the Kuomintang (Chinese National People's Party) where he served as its first leader. Sun was a uniting figure in post-Imperial China, and remains unique among 20th-century Chinese politicians for being widely revered amongst the people from both sides of the Taiwan Strait.

Although Sun is considered one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. After the success of the revolution, he quickly fell out of power in the newly founded Republic of China, and led successive revolutionary governments as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation. Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern Expedition. His party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Communists, split into two factions after his death. Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing a political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and the people's livelihood

(source: wikipedia)

San-min Doctrine(三民主義)

Dr Sun was talking about political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People or San-min Doctrine(三民主義,San-min Zhǔyì): nationalism(民族主義, Mínzú Zhǔyì), democracy( 民權主義, Mínquán Zhǔyì), and the people's livelihood(民生主義, Mínshēng Zhǔyì). The ideology is heavily influenced by Sun's experiences in the United States and contains elements of the American progressive movement and the thought championed by Abraham Lincoln. Sun credited a line from Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, "government of the people, by the people, for the people," as an inspiration for the Three Principles.

The time may be 1911, after the founding of modern China.

It is interesting to hear the original voice of Dr Sun on the San-min Zhǔyì, this year will be 100 anniversary of the formation of modern China. He said The revolution is not yet finished. Is the speech remind us of what happen to the current political environment in China? Is Dr Sun's San min Doctrine is still relevant now in Taiwan and Mainland China?

The political system of Manchu had been overthrown, is China united as a country? The desire by the superpowers and neighbor, especially USA & Japan to divide China is still relevant at the current political scenario. Is China still facing the political threat as the time of Dr Sun? but this time with the burden of the Taiwan separatism...the situation become more complicated.

The people's livelihood(民生主義, Mínshēng Zhǔyì)

China and Taiwan are financially and economically strong now, but if we look at both socially, is anything lacking as Dr Sun had been fighting for? The people's livelihood(民生主義), Dr Sun divided livelihood into four areas: food, clothing, housing, and transportation; and planned out how an ideal (Chinese) government can take care of these for its people. China or People Republic of China may be economically strong now, but the issues of poverty, income distribution inequality, environment pollution,corruption, abuse of power, food contamination,....reflected that she is far away from the dream of Dr Sun. Taiwan did not do better, she has the same failure of corruption, food issues, but in view of earlier development status, she has a better political and legal system to hide it.

In Chinese thinking, peace or hebing(和平), with the word 和 as harmony and 平 as equality, balanced. In the word 和 there is one mouth(口) and one grain(禾). Peace only come when people are well feed with one grain for one mouth. Food sufficiency is a critical factor for political stability, it is always the political challenge for the rulers in China, from ancient time until now. Unless all the Chinese people are well fed, Mínshēng(民生) will still weak in mainland China and Taiwan. Despite both are economically strong, there are people died of hunger in mainland China, recently UK published Economist also reported a Taiwan man died of hunger in the financially strong Taiwan. Mainland China has been trying to achieve the objective, but was hamper by corruption and its large land mass and population. As a small island, Taiwan is better in the Mínshēng(民生)issue.

Are they now developed into a more civic society with their economical successes? The trends seems to going the opposite direction....

Nationalism(民族主義, Mínzú Zhǔyì)

Nationalism(民族主義, Mínzú Zhǔyì), is more complicated. To achieve this Dr Sun believed that China must develop a "civic-nationalism," Zhonghua Minzu, as opposed to an "ethnic-nationalism," so as to unite all of the different ethnicities of China, mainly composed by the five major groups of Han, Mongols, Tibetans, Manchus, and the Muslims or Hui. Chinese is actually a modern term for Zhonghua Minzu(中华民族) or Chinese nationality, but mistakenly and wrongly used by the world as refereed Chinese to only Han people. Chinese is a relatively new term for Chinese people, it included the 5 main ethnic groups in China.

Looking at the internal ethnic problems of mainland China and Taiwan, and the politically divided China-Taiwan,nationalism or Mínzú Zhǔyì is actual a failure to Dr Sun. This give the opportunities to USA, Japan and some western countries to manipulate the issues for their political and economical advantages.

There are even Taiwan independent supporters fighting for de-sinoism(to remove any Chinese element from Taiwan), and the political process of Han people in Taiwan to split themselves again to "benshengren"(本省人) and "waishengren"(外省人). The "waishengren" literally "out-of-province person", are people from mainland China who emigrated with the KMT government, they are politically for unification with mainland China. The "benshengren", literally "home-province person" are people who emigrated earlier, but mainly people who had gone through the 50 years Japanese colonization, many can speak Japanese, some use Japanese names or with family members who had fight for Japanese Imperial Army during the WW2. They are culturally more close to Japan, typical example is former President Lee Teng Hui. They are the one who support Taiwan independence, and called themselves native Taiwanese, at the expense of the actual Taiwan native people(原住民). The "benshengren"(本省人) and "waishengren" are mainly Han Chinese ethnicity, Min-nan people (閩南人) and Hakka(客家人), with some minorities. Basically they are the same culturally, but politically due to different time of arrival, and the treatment and political abuses of KMT, caused the historical divided, and resulted in strong root for Taiwan independence movement. Where is the nationalism to them? Nationalism is Taiwan independence?....

The democracy( 民權主義, Mínquán Zhǔyì)

Someone said it is not easy to teach Chinese about democracy. One scholar even said democracy is demon go crazy. The 5000 years of civilization in China, mainly under imperial rule,communist rule or one party ruled; the period of democracy is short.

The People Republic of China, even economically no longer a communist country; but politically still remain under communism, a one party ruled country. Theoretically as communist country, democracy is extremely weak. But Chinese has seen more freedom recently, especially on capitalist economy. However the freedom of expression was limited, especially opposition voices on the livelihood issues, like Aids, milk powder, railway accidents, pollutions, corruptions; were silenced by the ruling communist government.

Taiwan may say it is now a democratic, but still relatively short, and the system may be heavily influence by the businesses, secret society, KMT bureaucracy, corruptions, fighting in the assembly, which tainted their democracy development. But this is the only factor that the Taiwanese is proud of in their justification for independence. Taiwan's democracy is tainted with foreign support, from USA and Japan.

On international relationship, Taiwan is politically and military influenced by USA and Japan. Ironically, in Sept 2011, two rival camps of next President Election 2012 visited USA in their promotion campaign. President Ma Ying-jeou (馬英九)'s KMT team and defended his top election campaign aide King Pu-tsung’s (金溥聰) trip to the US as an opportunity to promote Taiwanese policies in the US.Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) Chairperson Tsai Ing-wen’s (蔡英文) US visit has apparently boosted her support rate. From their activities in USA it is clearly revealed the USA foreign policy on strait relationship is not straight forward, but critical for both camps, with hidden strategic move best know to them. Why must Taiwan professed as either a part of China or independent Taiwan, visited to USA for their support? This revealed Taiwan democracy is fake, Taiwan still need USA for military and political support to survive, both candidates know the games....

At one side USA only recognize People Republic of China as legitimate government for China, at the same time supplies arms to Taiwan, recognize as part of China by USA. The reason given was:

"Obama administration for telling US Congress on Wednesday that it plans a US$5.3 billion (S$6.83 billion) upgrade of Taiwan's F-16 fighter fleet. The US offer - which includes sales of advanced air-to-air missiles, laser- and GPS-guided bombs and radars -Washington says it wants Beijing and Taipei to determine their future peacefully, and that it is obliged by US law to help the island defend itself. Taiwan said the upgrade of the F-16s would contribute to regional peace by improving its defense capability in the face of what it called a continued threat from China."

What is USA(an outsider) action to supply arms to Taiwan, a part of China in the face of threat from their own government(as recognized by USA in one China policy), is clear cut interference of internal affairs of China. In military or international law, an unfriendly act, which can provoke war. The excuses by Obama' administration was "wants Beijing and Taipei to determine their future "peacefully", and that it is obliged by US law to help the island defend itself". What a hypocrisy, by supplying arms, the Taiwan issue can solved peacefully, why not Obama as Nobel Peace Prize winner, be a peace maker and call for peaceful negotiation for unification(instead of supply arms)???

Logically, USA's hypocrisy was diplomatically supported one China policy, militarily support Taiwan's defense(part of China), indirectly revealed actually USA support war between mainland China and Taiwan. It is just like saying I recognize USA as one nation, but I supply arms to Hawaii independent movement to fight Obama's central government...what a silly and cunning strategy, USA is using.... but they gained strategic advantage economically and militarily over East Asia. this is especially so when USA is facing economic decline, war or arms sales is the last resort to boost their economy. But unfortunately their allies, Europe faced similar economic problems and has wake up against unnecessary war. USA must find other way to boost its arms industry as war become difficult with less allies, strait relationship is the cash cow.

Another Taiwan's support is Japan, China's neighbour, linked to USA by The Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan (日本国とアメリカ合衆国との間の相互協力及び安全保障条約 Nippon-koku to Amerika-gasshūkoku to no Aida no Sōgo Kyōryoku oyobi Anzen Hoshō Jōyaku). Its defense, like USA perceived China as threat, revealed in their defense white paper. Japan is waiting for the timing, the right time to gain their political benefits....they played their strategy similarly on Strait relationship, never call for peaceful unification solution as neighbor....

Democracy was the main failure of Dr Sun's San-min Doctrine...and also his personal dream.... even he admired USA's Abraham Lincoln, and have friends in Japan; but there was no support from the two nations on his revolution in 1910s, he was forced to obtain support from communist Russia(another wolf) and revert to military action for Northern Expedition by Guangzhou militarist government, to unite China against the war lords. But he failed and died of fatigue in 1925...his democratic friends failed him...

This opened way for military opportunist Chiang Kai-shek(蔣介石)to takeover the power, which led to Chinese Civil War (1927-1949/1950), a military dictator who killed the opening and opportunity for Chinese democracy.

"Revolution is not success yet"

Overall, Dr Sun is actually facing failure in his San Min Doctrine in the current political environment. Despite the Chinese Revolution had inspired many developing countries to fight for independence, but China still suffering from the negative impact of the civil war. I wonder how the communist government and party leaders of Taiwan political parties feel when hearing the speech of Dr Sun 100 years ago...

No wonder Dr Sun said "Revolution is not success yet". But despite of revolutions after revolutions, civil wars and cultural revolution; Chinese as a Mínzú(民族)and as a nation, is still divided. His own people failed him. Chinese no longer adhered to San Min Doctrine?

"government of the people, by the people, for the people," is a dream far away from Chinese people.

May be China/Taiwan need a personality, a new personality or a new cultural movement that can cry" I have a dream" like Martin Luther King, and finish the revolution to democracy, to "government of the people, by the people, for the people,". but not cultural revolution please.....she needs mental revolution to be more civilized and more democratic...

The problem is when will it be?....

Chinese need to learn from German on issue of Nationalism(民族主義, Mínzú Zhǔyì) where West German willing to sacrifice financially and economically for East German for the sake of unification...

... and from Scandinavian countries on The people's livelihood(民生主義, Mínshēng Zhǔyì), where each individual can be happy to have all the life necessity well take care.

But please do not learn Mínquán Zhǔyì(民權主義), from USA and British on the lesson of wild absolute freedom as their democracy, they are not the good teachers. Their democracy of absolute freedom has failed them, but China need to learn their strong legal system(法律)to maintain and sustain the San Min Doctrine((三民主義).

China should developed their own form of democracy that will enriched their people to be free, mentally and spiritually towards a civilized and democratic society....

Otherwise, Dr Sun see nothing on his effort to overthrown Manchu government; Dr Sun's dream is not a divided China, either politically, ethnically or physically; His vision was not only economically strong nation, but also a united, civilized and democratic country where Chinese people of all ethnic groups are living happily in their own land, and playing positive role as global citizen.

Idolizing foreigners(洋化)

Looking at the younger generations of mainland China and Taiwan, socially and culturally, I can see two trends, mainland China is idolizing USA, and Taiwan idolizing USA and Japan, but biased toward Japan. The younger generations now deviated further from their Chinese identity, and may have inferior complex over their Chinese cultural identity. If what I see is true, and the cultural orientation of the younger generations, mainland China will be one day "Little USA", and Taiwan, "Little Japan"..... they will go separate way seeking for different cultural identity....The cultural dichotomy in future era will further divide the Chinese culturally and socially, making unification more difficult.... San Min Doctrine is far away, not in their mind, and the influence of popular culture(most are originated from either USA or Japan) is much stronger than their Chinese traditional culture. This is the real threat for China...

100 years later, the tears still dropping....for China

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Two Lives Changed After Pearl Harbor

Devotions from History - Two Lives Changed After Pearl Harbor

真珠湾攻撃隊長 淵田美津雄中佐に一体何がおきた?

Jacob DeShazer - Doolittle Raider turned missionary

Jacob Daniel DeShazer (15 November 1912 – 15 March 2008) participated in the Doolittle Raid as a staff sergeant and later became a missionary in Japan. Here is the story of how from a Doolittle Raider, he become a Christian missionary.

Jacob DeShazer - Doolittle Raider
Doolittle Raid

The Doolittle Raid, on 18 April 1942, was the first air raid by the United States to strike the Japanese Home Islands (specifically Honshu) during World War II. By demonstrating that Japan itself was vulnerable to American air attack, it provided a vital morale boost and opportunity for U.S. retaliation after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. The raid was planned and led by Lieutenant Colonel James "Jimmy" Doolittle. Doolittle would later recount in his autobiography that the raid was intended to bolster American morale and to cause the Japanese to begin doubting their leadership:

The Japanese people had been told they were invulnerable ... An attack on the Japanese homeland would cause confusion in the minds of the Japanese people and sow doubt about the reliability of their leaders. There was a second, and equally important, psychological reason for this attack ... Americans badly needed a morale boost.[1]

Sixteen U.S. Army Air Forces B-25B Mitchell medium bombers were launched from the U.S. Navy's aircraft carrier USS Hornet deep in the Western Pacific Ocean. The plan called for them to bomb military targets in Japan, and to continue westward to land in China—landing a medium bomber on the Hornet was impossible. All of the aircraft involved in the bombing were lost and 11 crewmen were either killed or captured—with three of the captured men executed by the Japanese Army in China. One of the B-25s landed in the Soviet Union at Vladivostok, where it was confiscated and its crew interned for more than a year. Thirteen entire crews, and all but one crewman of a 14th, returned either to the United States or to American forces.[2][3]

The raid caused negligible material damage to Japan, but it succeeded in its goal of helping American morale, and casting doubt in Japan on the ability of the Japanese military leaders. It also caused Japan to withdraw its powerful aircraft carrier force from the Indian Ocean to defend their Home Islands, and the raid contributed to Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's decision to attack Midway — an attack that turned into a decisive rout of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) by the U.S. Navy near Midway Island in the Central Pacific.

The Doolittle Raid

On 1 April 1942, the 16 modified bombers, their five-man crews and Army maintenance personnel, totaling 71 officers and 130 enlisted men,[14] were loaded onto the USS Hornet at Alameda. Each aircraft carried four specially constructed 500-pound (225 kg) bombs. Three of these were high-explosive munitions and one was a bundle of incendiaries. The incendiaries were long tubes, wrapped together in order to be carried in the bomb bay but designed to separate and scatter over a wide area after release. Five bombs had Japanese "friendship" medals wired to them—medals awarded by the Japanese government to U.S. servicemen before the war.[16] The bombers' armament was reduced to decrease weight (and thus increase range). Each bomber launched with two .50-caliber (12.7 mm) machine guns in an upper turret and a .30-caliber (7.62 mm) machine gun in the nose. The simulated gun barrels mounted in the tail cones, intended to discourage Japanese air attacks from behind, were cited afterward by Doolittle as being particularly effective.[11] The aircraft were clustered closely and tied down on the Hornet's flight deck in the order of their expected launch.

The B-25s then flew towards Japan, most in groups of two to four aircraft before changing to single file at wavetop level to avoid detection.[22] The aircraft began arriving over Japan about noon (Tokyo time; six hours after launch) and bombed 10 military and industrial targets in Tokyo, two in Yokohama and one each in Yokosuka, Nagoya, Kobe and Osaka. Although some B-25s encountered light antiaircraft fire and a few enemy fighters over Japan, no bomber was shot down. Only the B-25 of Lt. Richard O. Joyce received any battle damage, minor hits from antiaircraft fire.[20] B-25 No. 4, piloted by Lt. Everett W. Holstrom, jettisoned its bombs before reaching its target when it came under attack by fighters after its gun turret malfunctioned.[23]

15 of the 16 aircraft then proceeded southwest along the southern coast of Japan and across the East China Sea towards eastern China, where several fields in Zhejiang province were supposed to be ready to guide them in using homing beacons, then recover and refuel them for continuing on to Chongqing, the wartime Kuomintang capital.[14] The primary base was at Zhuzhou, toward which all the aircraft navigated, but Halsey never sent the planned signal to alert them, apparently because of a possible threat to the task force. One B-25, extremely low on fuel, headed instead for the closer land mass of the Soviet Union.

The raiders faced several unforeseen challenges during their flight to China: night was approaching, the aircraft were running low on fuel and the weather was rapidly deteriorating. None would have reached China at all except for a fortuitous tail wind as they came off the target that increased their ground speed by 25 knots for seven hours.[24] As a result of these problems, the crews realized they would probably not be able to reach their intended bases in China, leaving them the option of either bailing out over eastern China or crash landing along the Chinese coast.[11][N 4] Fifteen aircraft reached the Chinese coast after 13 hours of flight and crash landed or bailed out; the crew who flew to the Soviet Union landed 40 miles (65 km) beyond Vladivostok, where their B-25 was confiscated and the crew interned. It was the longest combat mission ever flown by the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber, averaging approximately 2,250 nautical miles (4,170 km). Although York and others were well-treated, diplomatic attempts to return them to the United States proved unsuccessful. Eventually they were relocated to Ashgabat (20 miles (32 km) from the Iranian border), and York managed to bribe a smuggler, who helped them cross the border and reach nearby British consulate on May 11, 1943.[2][3] According to declassified Soviet archives, smuggling was staged by NKVD, because the Soviet government felt unable to repatriate them legally in the face of the neutrality pact with Japan.[25]

Doolittle and his crew, after safely parachuting into China, received assistance from Chinese soldiers and civilians as well as John Birch, an American missionary in China. As did the others who participated in the mission, Doolittle had to bail out but fortunately landed in a heap of dung (saving a previously injured ankle from breaking) in a paddy in China near Quzhou. Doolittle thought that the raid had been a terrible failure because the aircraft were lost, and that he would be court-martialed upon his return.[26] Doolittle subsequently recommended Birch for intelligence work with Claire Chennault's Flying Tigers.

The Killing by Japanese

Approximately 250,000 Chinese civilians were massacred by the Japanese Army in eastern China in retaliation for Chinese assistance of the attacking American aviators. Following the Doolittle Raid, most of the B-25 crews that came down in China eventually made it to safety with the help of Chinese civilians and soldiers. The Chinese people who helped them, however, paid dearly for sheltering the Americans. The Japanese military began the Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign to intimidate the Chinese from helping downed American airmen. The Japanese killed an estimated 250,000 civilians while searching for Doolittle's men.

Jacob DeShazer - Prisoner of War
The missing crews

The crews of two aircraft (10 men in total) were unaccounted for: Hallmark's crew (sixth off) and Farrow's crew (last off).

On 15 August 1942, the United States learned from the Swiss Consulate General in Shanghai that eight of the missing crew members were prisoners of the Japanese at Police Headquarters in that city (two crewmen had drowned after the crash landing of their aircraft). On 19 October 1942, the Japanese announced that they had tried the eight men and sentenced them to death, but that several of them had received commutation of their sentences to life imprisonment. No names or details were included in the broadcast.

After the war, the complete story of the two missing crews was uncovered in a war crimes trial held in Shanghai. The trial opened in February 1946 to try four Japanese officers for mistreatment of the eight captured crewmen. Two of the missing crewmen, Staff Sgt. William J. Dieter and Sgt. Donald E. Fitzmaurice, had drowned when their B-25 crashed off the coast of China. The other eight, Lieutenants Dean E. Hallmark, Robert J. Meder, Chase Nielsen, William G. Farrow, Robert L. Hite, and George Barr; and Corporals Harold A. Spatz and Jacob DeShazer were captured. In addition to being tortured and starved, these men contracted dysentery and beriberi as a result of the poor conditions under which they were confined. On 28 August 1942, pilot Hallmark, pilot Farrow and gunner Spatz were given a mock trial by the Japanese, although the airmen were never told the charges against them. On 14 October 1942, these three crewmen were advised that they were to be executed the next day. At 16:30 on 15 October 1942, the three were taken by truck to Public Cemetery Number 1 outside of Shanghai and executed by a firing squad.

The other five captured airmen remained in military confinement on a starvation diet, their health rapidly deteriorating. In April 1943, they were moved to Nanking where, on 1 December 1943, Meder died. The remaining four men (Nielsen, Hite, Barr and DeShazer) eventually began receiving slightly better treatment from their captors and were even given a copy of the Bible and a few other books. They survived until they were freed by American troops in August 1945. The four Japanese officers who were tried for war crimes against the eight Doolittle Raiders were all found guilty. Three of them were sentenced to hard labor for five years and the fourth to a nine-year sentence.

Clip from an Anti-Japanese Propaganda video entitled "Know Your Enemy: Japan." Released in 1945, the film gives an overview of Japanese social, military, and political culture, attempting to provide a rationale for America's war with Japan.

After the War

DeShazer eventually became a missionary and returned to Japan in 1948, where he served in that capacity for over 30 years.

Of the group, only Hite is alive. Barr died of heart failure in 1967, Nielsen in 2007 and Jacob DeShazer died 15 March 2008.

One other Doolittle Raid crewman was lost on the mission. Corporal Leland D. Faktor (flight engineer/gunner with Gray) was killed during his bailout attempt over China, the only man on his crew to be lost.

(source: wikipedia)

Jacob DeShazer - Christian missionary

Jacob DeShazer, a member of the Doolittle Raiders, tells the story of his conversion to Christianity in a Japanese POW camp, his forgiveness for his Japanese torturers, and his return to Japan to preach the Gospel.

The following Bible words inspired Jacob DeShazer to forgive his enemies, the words also inspired through Jacob DeShazer testimony, transform a pilot from Japanese Imperial Navy Air Service to love his enemies....

2 Corinthians 5:17-19

17 If any person is in Christ, then that person is made new. The old things have gone; everything is made new! 18 All this is from God. Through Christ, God made peace between us and himself. And God gave us the work of bringing people into peace with him. 19 I mean that God was in Christ, making peace between the world and himself. In Christ, God did not hold people guilty for their sins. And he gave us this message of peace {to tell people}.

(Extract from the New Testament, Holy Bible)

Enemy become Friend

The most interesting testimony of his life is how he met Mitsuo Fuchida (淵田美津雄). Mitsuo Fuchida (淵田美津雄) (3 December 1902 - 30 May 1976) was a Captain in the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service and a Imperial Japanese Navy flying ace pilot before and during World War II. He is perhaps best known for leading the first air wave attacks on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Fuchida was responsible for the coordination of the entire aerial attack working under the overall fleet Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo. After World War II ended, Fuchida became an evangelist Christian preacher and frequently travelled to the United States to minister to the Japanese expatriate community.

DeShazer, the Doolittle Raider who bombed Nagoya, met Captain Mitsuo Fuchida, who led the attack on Pearl Harbor, becoming close friends. Fuchida became a Christian in 1950 after reading a tract written about DeShazer titled, "I Was a Prisoner of Japan", and spent the rest of his life as a missionary in Asia and the United States. On occasion, DeShazer and Fuchida preached together as Christian missionaries in Japan. In 1959, DeShazer moved to Nagoya to establish a Christian church in the city he had bombed.

Two enemies become brothers in Christ.

3. Spared for Life and strength to forgive,

Wednesday, September 7, 2011

Japanese Hidden Christian(隠れキリシタン kakure kirishitan).

The root of the Japanese word for Christianity (キリスト教 Kirisuto-kyō) comes from the Japanese katakana transcription of the word Cristo (キリスト kirisuto), Portuguese word for Christ, and the Japanese word for doctrine (教 kyō, a teaching or precept).

Nestorian (Assyrian Church)
A Japanese Christian institute claims that there is enough archaeological evidence to suggest that Nestorian (Assyrian Church) missionaries first landed in Japan in AD 199, believing that they traveled through India, China and Korea before the Tang Dynasty. It also estimates that the first churches were fully established by the end of the 4th century especially at Nara in central Japan. Historical evidence in China have proved the arrival of Nestorian during Tang Dynasty, it is possible that some of them had arrived at Japan.

In the year 1542, the first Europeans from Portugal landed on Kyushu in Western Japan. The two historically most important things they imported to Japan were gunpowder and Christianity. The Japanese barons on Kyushu welcomed foreign trade especially because of the new weapons, and, therefore, tolerated the Jesuit missionaries. The missionaries were successful in converting quite large numbers of people in Western Japan including members of the ruling class.

On August 15, 1549, St. Francis Xavier (later canonized by Gregory XV in 1622), Fr. Cosme de Torres, S.J. (a Jesuit priest), and Fr. John Fernandez arrived in Kagoshima, Japan, from Spain with hopes of bringing Catholicism to Japan. The arrival started the Christian history in Japan.

On September 29, St. Francis Xavier visited Shimazu Takahisa, the daimyo of Satsuma (containing the city of Kagoshima), asking for permission to build the first Catholic mission in Japan. The daimyo agreed in hopes of creating a trade relationship with Europe. Within a year, however, he relented on this promise and made it illegal for people to convert.

In 1550, Francis Xavier also undertook a mission to the capital Kyoto.

The Hideyoshi's Prohibition Edict was published on July 24,1587

Towards the end of the 16th century, the Jesuits lost their monopoly position in Japan when Franciscan missionaries arrived in Kyoto despite a first banning edict by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. In 1597, Hideyoshi proclaimed a more serious banning edict.

日本二十六聖人 Nihon Nijūroku Seijin

On February 5, 1597, twenty-six Christians(six European Franciscan missionaries, three Japanese Jesuits and seventeen Japanese laymen) including three young boys—were executed by crucifixion in Nagasaki. These individuals were raised on crosses and then pierced through with spears.

List of the 26 Martyrs of 1597
•Saint Antonio Dainan
•Saint Bonaventura of Miyako
•Saint Cosme Takeya
•Saint Francisco Branco
•Saint Francisco of Nagasaki
•Saint Francisco of Saint Michael
•Saint Gabriel de Duisco
•Saint Gaius Francis
•Saint Gundisalvus (Gonsalvo) Garcia
•Saint Isabel Fernandez
•Saint Ignatius Jorjes
•Saint James Kisai
•Saint Joaquim Saccachibara
•Saint Juan Kisaka
•Saint Juan Soan de Goto
•Saint Leo Karasumaru
•Saint Luis Ibaraki
•Saint Martin of the Ascension
•Saint Mathias of Miyako
•Saint Miguel Kozaki
•Saint Paulo Ibaraki
•Saint Paul Miki or Saint Paulo Miki – Born in Japan in 1562, he joined the Society of Jesus in 1580 and was the first Japanese member of any Catholic religious order. He died one year before his ordination to the Catholic priesthood. Miki's remaining ashes and bones are now located in Macau, China.
•Saint Pablo Suzuki
•Saint Pedro Bautista or Saint Peter Baptist – He was a Spanish Franciscan who had worked about ten years in the Philippines before coming to Japan. St. Peter was a companion of St. Paul Miki when Christianity was made illegal.
•Saint Pedro Sukejiroo
•Saint Philip of Jesus - Born in Mexico in 1572 (at the time "New Spain"). Upon his martyrdom he became the first Mexican saint and patron saint of Mexico City.
•Saint Thomas Kozaki
•Saint Thomas Xico

Tokugawa Ieyasu and his successors continued the persecution of Christianity in several further edicts. In 1612, the Tokugawa Regime published the Tokugawa Prohibition Edict dated 1-9-1612, by which not only the Missionaries or Religious, but all their followers were suppose to change religion or get out of Japan.

1616 (the restriction of foreign trade to Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyūshū), 1622 (the execution of 120 missionaries and converts), 1624 (the expulsion of the Spanish), and 1629 (the execution of thousands of Christians). Finally, the Closed Country Edict of 1635 prohibited any Japanese from traveling outside Japan or, if someone left, from ever returning. In 1636 the Dutch were restricted to Dejima, a small artificial island—and thus, not true Japanese soil—in Nagasaki's harbor.

Persecution continued sporadically, breaking out again in 1613 and 1630. By 1630, Christianity was driven underground.

On September 10, 1632, 55 Christians were martyred in Nagasaki in what became known as the Great Genna Martyrdom. At this time Roman Catholicism was officially outlawed. The Church remained without clergy and theological teaching disintegrated until the arrival of Western missionaries in the nineteenth century.

While there were many more martyrs, the first martyrs came to be especially revered, the most celebrated of which was Paulo Miki. The Martyrs of Japan were canonized by the Roman Catholic Church on June 8, 1862 by Blessed Pius IX and are listed on the calendar as Sts. Paul Miki and his Companions, commemorated on February 6. Originally this feast day was listed as Sts. Peter Baptist and Twenty-Five Companions, Martyrs, and commemorated on February 5.

The last persecution was during 1868-1873, the Christian in Japan endured 250 years of persecution.

For the other list of Catholic martyrs, please refer to wikipedia, , and the official website of The 26 Martyrs Museum in Nagasaki City, Japan, The museum is located at Nishizaka-machi 7-8, Nagasaki City, 850-0051 Japan.

The Shimabara Rebellion(島原の乱 Shimabara no ran)1637-1638

The Shimabara Rebellion (島原の乱 Shimabara no ran) was an uprising largely involving Japanese peasants, most of them Catholic Christians, in 1637–1638 during the Edo period.

In the wake of the Matsukura clan's construction of a new castle at Shimabara, taxes were drastically raised, which provoked anger from local peasants and lordless samurai. In addition, religious persecution against the local Christians exacerbated the discontent, which turned into open revolt in 1637. The Tokugawa Shogunate sent a force of over 125,000 troops to suppress the rebellion, and after a lengthy siege against the rebels at Hara Castle, defeated them.

The Shimabara Rebellion, led by a young Christian boy named Amakusa Shiro Tokisada(天草四郎時貞), took place in 1637. The Rebellion broke out over economic desperation and government oppression but later assumed a religious tone. About 27,000 people joined the uprising, but it was crushed by the shogunate after a sustained campaign. Shiro led the defence of Hara Castle and died when it fell. The rebel leader Amakusa Shiro was beheaded, and persecution of Christianity became strictly enforced.

They are not considered martyrs by the Catholic Church since they took up arms for materialistic reasons.

Shimabara Rebellion ended in 1638, about 35,000 Christians die.

Japan's national seclusion policy was tightened, and formal persecution of Christianity continued until the 1850s.

Dutch and Chinese were restricted, respectively, to Dejima and to a special quarter in Nagasaki. Besides small trade of some outer daimyo with Korea and the Ryukyu Islands, to the southwest of Japan's main islands. By 1641, foreign contacts were limited by the policy of sakoku to Nagasaki.

By 1650, Christianity was almost completely eradicated, and external political, economic and religious influence on Japan became quite limited. Only China, the Dutch East India Company, and for a short period, the English, enjoyed the right to visit Japan during this period, for commercial purposes only, and they were restricted to the Dejima port in Nagasaki. Other Europeans who landed on Japanese shores were put to death without trial.

First Japanese Mass Migration - nikkeijin(日系人)

Many Japanese were deported to Macau or to the Spanish Philippines. Many Macanese and Japanese Mestizos are the mixed-race descendants of the deported Japanese Catholics. 400 were officially deported by the government to Macau and Manila, but thousands of Japanese were pressured into moving voluntarily. About 10,000 Macanese and 3,000 Japanese were moved to Manila. Some went to Siam.

Nikkeijin in Siam(タイ王国の日系人)

Some of Japanese Christian went to Siam. The Japanese quarters of Ayutthaya were home to about 1,500 Japanese inhabitants (some estimates run as high as 7,000). The community was called Ban Yipun in Thai, and was headed by a Japanese chief nominated by Thai authorities. It seems to have been a combination of traders, Christian converts ("Kirishitan") who had fled their home country to various Southeast Asian countries following the persecutions of Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, and unemployed former samurai who had been on the losing side at the battle of Sekigahara. Padre Antonio Francisco Cardim recounted having administered sacrament to around 400 Japanese Christians in 1627 in the Thai capital of Ayuthaya ("a 400 japoes christaos"). Until 1630, Ayudhyan society was very tolerant toward diverse religions.

The Japanese settlement is situated on the east bank of the Chao Phraya River in an
area called Ko Rian. It was located opposite the Portuguese settlement and was
separated from the English and Dutch settlement by the Suan Phlu canal to the north.( Fr. Nixi took care of the Japanese in the church they had built, most probably in the Japanese settlement of Ayutthaya.

There were four hundred Japanese Christians in the Japanese enclave in 1624 and six hundred soldiers in 1628. The Christian refugees came mainly from peasant families, thus it is unlikely that this category overlapped too much with the warriors. There were specialized Japanese employees who, in turn, may have had families. Thus, a number between 2,000 and 3,000, including non-Japanese residents, seems more realistic. According to such an estimate, Ayutthaya featured one of the biggest Nihonmachi in Southeast Asia, probably second in population only Manila (which featured two Japanese settlements, in Dilao and San Miguel). At the same time it was larger than Faifo and Tourane (both in Cochinchina, today Da Nang and Hoi An in central Vietnam) and Ponhealu and Phnom Pehn (in Cambodia).

The Christian men were in all probability the only Japanese who brought their Japanese wives with them to Siam. For the rest, it can be assumed that intermarriage between Japanese men and local women (Siamese, Mon or Laotian) was likely, since Ayutthaya was cosmopolitan enough to accept unions between members of different communities. The Christians, whenever possible, probably sent their children (both males and females) to receive their teaching in the Portuguese enclave, which faced the Nihonmachi on the western side of the Menam.

There probably would have been a whole generation of young “Japanese-Thai” adults. The males among them were educated in the Japanese martial way but born and raised many thousands of miles away from Edo. “it might be inferred that through constant intermarriage with the women of the county, they have become absorbed in the mass of the population.”

(extract from

In 1626, the Portuguese Jesuit Antonio Francesco Cardim visited Ayudhya together with a converted Japanese priest, Roman Friar Nixi, Nagamasa invited them for a banquet and entertained them at length. The apparent friendliness of the 'capitano' Nagamasa is described in a letter written by Cardim in Italian and sent to Rome. In the same missive, the Jesuit father talks of 400 Japanese Christian living in Ayudhya. Tolerance toward the Japanese Christians in Ayudhya might had been assured as well by the fact that the Japanese, despite their relatively small number, represented a military power the Siamese court and the other inhabitants of the entrepôt had learned to take seriously. The Japanese colony was highly valued for its military expertise, and was organized under a "Department of Japanese Volunteers" (Krom Asa Yipun) by the Thai king.

There were also Japanese communities in Ligor and Patani.

From the 1580s to the 1630s, a Japanese community of traders, mercenaries, and Catholic exiles thrived in the Ayutthaya Kingdom's capital Ayutthaya. They arrived primarily on the red seal ships which controlled trade between Japan and Siam. By 1620, the Japanese district in the city's southeast, on the east bank of the Chao Phraya River, numbered between 1,000 and 1,500 inhabitants, making it the second-largest Japanese community abroad, behind that in Manila.

Yamada Nagamasa(山田長政, 1590–1630)
One of its members, Yamada Nagamasa(山田長政, 1590–1630), who later became the governor of the Nakhon Si Thammarat in southern Thailand. He rose to prominence as a military advisor to King Songtham, attaining the rank Ok-ya Senaphimuk (ออกญาเสนาภิมุข). However, in 1630 Sri Voravong (later known as King Prasat Thong) the defense minister sent him to put down a rebellion at Ligor (today Nakhon Si Thammarat); he was wounded in the battle, and then poisoned by an emissary sent by Prasat Thong.

Following Yamada's death in 1630, the new ruler was Prasat Thong (สมเด็จพระเจ้าปราสาททอง, reigned 1629-1656), who was the first king of Prasat Thong dynasty, the 4th dynasty of Ayutthaya kingdom. He sent an army of 4000 soldiers to destroy the Japanese settlement in Ayutthaya, but many Japanese managed to flee to Cambodia. A few years later in 1633, returnees from Indochina were able to re-establish the Japanese settlement in Ayutthaya (300-400 Japanese). Upon hearing the news, Tokugawa Iemitsu, then shogun of Japan, cut off relations with Siam, refused to issue further Red Seal ship(朱印船 Shuinsen) permits for Siam. Red seal ships were Japanese armed merchant sailing ships bound for Southeast Asian ports with a red-sealed patent issued by the early Tokugawa shogunate in the first half of the 17th century. Between 1600 and 1635, more than 350 Japanese ships went overseas under this permit system.

Japan was concomitantly closing itself to the world at that time, initiating the "Closed Country"or Sakoku(鎖国), period. Dutch then took over the trade between Siam and Japan.

Monseigneur Laneau(1637 in Mondoubleau-1696 in Ayutthaya) worked at propagating the Christian faith and also took care of Annamite Christians and Japanese Christian communities in Siam. He was head of a Roman Catholic mission in Indochina, with his headquarters at Ayutthaya. Laneau became bishop of Ayutthaya in 1674. During the 1688 Siamese revolution, Laneau and his missionaries were taken hostage by the Siamese.

I wonder is there any Japanese Christian now in Ayutthaya, Thailand.....

Filipino Japanese(フィリピンの日系人)

The Japanese population in the Philippines has since included descendants of Japanese Catholics and other Japanese Christians who fled from the religious persecution imposed by the Tokugawa shogunate during the Edo period and settled during the colonial period from the 17th century until the 19th century. A statue of daimyo Ukon Takayama, who was exiled to the Philippines in 1614 because he refused to disvow his Christian beliefs, stands a patch of land across the road from the Post Office building in the Paco area of Manila. In the 17th century, the Spaniards referred to the Paco Area as the 'Yellow Plaza' because of the more than 3,000 Japanese who resided there.

Daimyo kirishitan- Dom Justo Takayama (高山右近)
Dom Justo Takayama (高山右近,or Iustus Takayama Ukon or Hikogoro Shigetomo) (1552 Haibara-cho, Nara, Japan – February 4, 1615 Manila, Philippines) was a kirishitan daimyo and a Japanese Samurai who followed Christianity in the Sengoku period of Japan. He was a layperson of the archdiocese of Tokyo.

Takayama Justo was born to be the heir of Takayama Tomoteru, the lord of Sawa Castle in the Yamato Province. His name as a child was Hikogorō (彦五郎). At the age of 12 (1564), his father converted to Catholicism and Hikogorō was also baptized Justo. After his coming-of-age ceremony, Hikogorō was named Shigetomo (重友). However, he is better known as Takayama Ukon (高山右近). The name Ukon comes from the government post he pretended, the officer of Ukonoefu (this was usual practice among samurai of the time).

Following the 1614 prohibition of Christianity by Tokugawa Ieyasu, the ruler of the time, he was expelled from Japan. On November 8, 1614, together with 300 Japanese Christians he left his home country from Nagasaki. He arrived at Manila on December 21 and was greeted warmly by the Spanish Jesuits and the local Filipinos there. It was reported that the Spaniards referred to the Paco Area as the "Yellow Plaza" because of the more than 3,000 Japanese who resided there. Plaza Dilao is the last vestige of the old town of Paco. There is a statue of Dom Justo Takayama in Plaza Dilao, Manila. When he died in 1615, the Spanish government interred him with a Christian burial with full military honors as a Daimyo. He is the first Daimyo to be buried in Philippine soil.

Shimabara peninsula after the war
On the Shimabara peninsula, most towns experienced a severe to total loss of population as a result of the rebellion. In order to maintain the rice fields and other crops, immigrants were brought from other areas across Japan to resettle the land. All inhabitants were registered with local temples, whose priests were required to vouch for their members' religious affiliation. Following the rebellion, Buddhism was strongly promoted in the area. Certain customs were introduced which remain unique to the area today. Towns on the Shimabara peninsula also continue to have a varied mix of dialects due to the mass immigration from other parts of Japan

Period of Isolation and Hidden Christianity Period started in 1639, where there was a complete ban of Portuguese ships.

Hidden Christian(隠れキリシタン kakure kirishitan).

教会シリーズ 平戸・生月

The Catholic remnant in Japan were driven underground and its members became known as the "Hidden Christians". Kakure Kirishitans are called the "hidden" Christians because they continued to practice Christianity in secret. They worshipped in secret rooms in private homes. As time went on, the figures of the saints and the Virgin Mary were transformed into figurines that looked like the traditional statues of the Buddha and bodhisattvas. The prayers were adapted to sound like Buddhist chant, yet retained many untranslated words from Latin, Portuguese and Spanish. The Bible was passed down orally, due to fears of printed works being confiscated by authorities. Because of the expulsion of the Catholic clergy in the 17th century, the Kakure Christian community relied on lay leaders to lead the services

Some priests remained in Japan illegally, including eighteen Jesuits, seven Franciscans, seven Dominicans, one Augustinian, five seculars and an unknown number of Jesuit irmao and dojuku. Since this time corresponds to the Thirty Years' War between Catholics and Protestants in Germany, it is possible that the checking of Catholic power in Europe reduced the flow of funds to the Catholic missions in Japan, which could be why they failed at this time and not before. During the Edo period, the Kakure Kirishitan kept their faith. Biblical phrases or prayers were transferred orally from parent to child, and secret posts (Mizukata) were assigned in their underground community to baptize their children, all while regional governments continuously operated Fumie to expose Christians. Drawn from the oral histories of Japanese Catholic communities, Shusaku Endo's acclaimed novel "Silence" provides detailed accounts of the persecution of Christian communities and the suppression of the Church.

On March 17th, 1865, some month after the opening of Oura Church in Nagasaki, some hidden Christians from Urakami come out to confirm that the catholic priest were back in Japan.

Hanare Kirishitan (離れキリシタン, separated Christians)

Many secret Christians, some of whom had adopted these new ways of practicing Christianity, came out of hiding when religious freedom was re-established in the mid-19th century and rejoined the Catholic Church after renouncing their unorthodox, syncretic practices. However, there were those who decided not to rejoin. They are known as the Hanare Kirishitan (離れキリシタン, separated Christians).
Following the legalization of Christianity and secularization of Japan, many Hanare Kirishitan lineages ended abruptly. Traditionally, boys learned the rituals and prayers from their fathers; when boys were uninterested or moved away from the homes, there would be no one left to continue the lineage.

In some cases, the communities drifted away from Christian teachings. They lost the meaning of the prayers and their religion became a version of the cult of ancestors, in which the ancestors happened to be their Christian martyrs.

For a while, Hanare Kirishitans were thought to have died out entirely, due to their tradition of secrecy. A group on Ikitsuki Island in Nagasaki prefecture, which had been overlooked by the Japanese government during the time of persecution, made their practices public in the 1980s and now perform them for audiences; however, these practices have acquired some attributes of theater, such as the telling of folktales and the use of statues and other images which most underground Christians had never created.


Ikitsuki (生月町 Ikitsuki-chō) is a former town on the island of the same name located in Kitamatsuura District, Nagasaki, Japan. Ikitsuki is known historically for two primary reasons: a legacy of whaling and hidden Christians. Near the south end of the island is a museum with exhibits on both these aspects of Ikitsuki's history.

Yamada church is the last remaining one in Nagasaki Prefecture to have an organized group of Hidden Christians (Kakure Kirishitan) in practice and existence. Located near Yamada Elementary School, this small church holds much history as one of the first and last outposts of Christian belief and persecution in Japan

The anthropologist Christal Whelan uncovered the existence of genuine Hanare Kirishitans on the Gotō Islands where Kakure Kirishitans had once fled. There were only two surviving priests on the islands, both of whom were over 90, and they would not talk to each other. The few surviving laity had also all reached old age, and some of them no longer had any priests from their lineage and prayed alone. These Hanare Kirishitans had a strong tradition of secrecy.

Gotō Islands 五島列島(ごとうれっとう)

The Gotō Islands (五島列島 Gotō rettō, literally: "five-island archipelago") are Japanese islands in the East China Sea, off the western coast of Kyūshū. The islands are a part of Nagasaki Prefecture.
Many of the inhabitants are descended from Christians of the Catholic-derived Kakure Kirishitan sect, and until recently Hanare Kirishitans still lived there, but the majority either returned to Catholicism after it was legalized in the 19th century or reverted to earlier practices. The islands have numerous Catholic churches, the oldest and most famous of which is Dozaki church, built in 1868 and located about 6 km north of Fukue port.

Following the legalization of Christianity and secularization of Japan, many Hanare Kirishitan lineages ended abruptly. Traditionally, boys learned the rituals and prayers from their fathers; when boys were uninterested or moved away from the homes, there would be no one left to continue the lineage.

The main reason which led to the complete extinction of Christianity in Japan by 1638 were the government's intentions to exert absolute control over its people. This would not have been possible with the interference of an aggressive and intolerant foreign religion like Christianity of that time.

After the Meiji restoration, prohibition of Christianity was abolished in 1873, on the 6th year of the Meiji Government. After World War II the number of Japanese Christians has been slowly increasing again.

Suggested movie in youtube;

1. Hidden Christians - Japan ,, Journeyman Pictures( Since Japan's rulers outlawed Christianity in the sixteenth century, believers have hidden their faith. But what began as Christianity has evolved into something quite different).

Further reading/viewing;

1. The Cross and the Rising Sun: The British Protestant missionary movement in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, 1865-1945, by A. Hamish Ion, Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press, 1993
2.Photo-Documentary of Christian history in Japan with Concentration on Hidden Christians,
3. Site of the Martyrdom of the 26 Saints of Japan,
4. Shimabara - St. Olaf College,

Kagawa Toyohiko 賀川豊彦(1888-1960) - “Gandhi of Japan.”

Toyohiko Kagawa was a Japanese pacifist, Christian reformer, evangelist, leader of the cooperative movement, and labor activist. He wrote, spoke, and worked at length on ways to employ Christian principles in the ordering of society.

He was hailed as a modern Saint Francis, favorably compared with Mohandas Gandhi.

Kagawa agreed that individual salvation was one important dimension of the faith, he maintained that for Christianity to be faithful to its founder’s vision and example it must also be a social movement

He is also “founding father” of Japanese consumer cooperative movement. Kagawa spoke passionately of cooperation and cooperatives:

"The capitalistic system has four main difficulties: It is based on selfish profiteering motives. It has the power to accumulate money for the few because it is based on competitive principles. The few compete with one another so that they need big concentration of capital; and this results in class struggle and revolution. But with the Christian cooperative motives we can get rid of the profiteering motives. Then there will be no need of the concentration of capital, no fear of class struggle and revolution".

石川本社ビル 賀川豊彦生誕地

Kagawa was born in Kobe, Japan to a philandering businessman and a concubine. However, both parents died while he was young. He was sent away to school, where he learned from two American missionary teachers, Drs. Harry W. Myers and Charles A. Logan, who took him into their homes.

Having learned English from these missionaries, Kagawa converted to Christianity after taking a Bible class in his youth, which led to him being disowned by his remaining extended family. Kagawa studied at the Tokyo Presbyterian College, and later enrolled in the Kobe Theological Seminary. While studying there, Kagawa was troubled by the seminarians' concern for technicalities of doctrine. He believed that Christianity in action was the truth of Christian doctrines. Impatiently, he would point to the parable of the Good Samaritan. From 1914 to 1916 he studied at Princeton Theological Seminary. In addition to theology, through the curricular exchange program with the university he also studied embryology, genetics, comparative anatomy, and paleontology while he was in Princeton


“Jesus Band” was established in 1909 (Meiji 22) when Toshihiko Kagawa was 21 years old. It was initially called “Kyureidan”.

Toyohiko Kagawa rented a 5-mat-room in Shin-Ikuta and commenced his missionary activities and charity work. The funding of the activities and the work was covered by his own scholarship, the fee for translation and manuscript, and wages as well as contributions from understanding insiders and outsiders involved in church.

In 1910, the first chapel, or the rented 5-mat-room used as a houseand for engaging in missionary work (6-221 Kita Honmachi, Fukiai-ku, Kobe) was named “Kyureidan”. It changed to “Jesus Band” in 1914.

From 1910 to 1924 he lived for all but two years in a shed six feet square (about 180 cm) in the slums of Kobe. In 1912 he unionized the shipyard workers. He spent two years (1914-1916) at Princeton studying techniques for the relief of poverty. In 1918 and 1921 he organized unions among factory workers and among farmers. He worked for universal male suffrage (granted in 1925) and for laws more favorable to trade unions.

Song of Farmers(農民歌)

Kagawa was arrested in Japan in 1921 during Kawasaki-Mitsubishi Shipbuilders strike. It was during this time that he seemed to realize that he was in a movement beyond his control. What was concerned by Kagawa, was that strikers with legitimate concerns could be transformed into a violent mob. It became increasingly clear to him that it can develop into situation against his pacifism, and not abide by his Christian principles of non-violence.

At a gathering of fourteen young pastors attending the Presbyterian Pastors National Meeting on October 5, 1921, he launched the Iesu no Tomo Kai at Church of Christ in Japan (Presbyterian). He was the founder of the Friends of Jesus movement (Iesu no Tomo Kai イエスの友会).The five principles of the Friends of Jesus are: Piety (Devotion to God in Christ), Work (of Mind and Hand), Purity (including War on Vice and Liquor), Peace (including War on War), and Service (Social, Religious, Political).It was through the Friends of Jesus movement that Kagawa’s vision of individual and social transformation was expanded far beyond the Shinkawa slums.

He was arrested again in 1922 for his part in labour activism. While in prison he wrote the novels Crossing the Deathline and Shooting at the Sun. The former was a semi-autobiographical depiction of his time among Kobe's destitute.

Kagawa and Sugiyama Genjiro organized the Japan Farmers’ Union (Nihon NØmin Kumiai) to address the difficulties of peasants in rural areas and to slow down the flow of displaced farmers into urban centers of unemployment and poverty. His Iesu Dan イエス団 (Jesus Band) in Shinkawa served initially as the promotion headquarters of the union.

After his release, Kagawa helped organize relief work in Tokyo following the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake

In 1923 he was asked to supervise social work in Tokyo. His writings began to attract favorable notice from the Japanese government and abroad. He established credit unions, schools, hospitals, and churches, and wrote and spoke extensively on the application of Christian principles to the ordering of society.

He founded the Anti-War League in 1928

He began the Kingdom-of-God Movement in 1930 and traveled extensively overseas to preach and teach.

1930s was the difficult time, a pre war period where ultra-nationalism and militarism were on the rise. Despite that, Friends of Jesus Movement continued their social transformation work.

In 1940, he was arrested after publicly apologizing to China for the Japanese invasion of that country. He was arrested and held in prison for two particular crimes: 1) he organized the voiceless so that they might speak in unison to those with power and be heard, and 2) he apologized to the Chinese for the Japanese occupation of portions of China. Toyohiko's commitment to peace--one he felt compulsory for all who hoped to follow Jesus even if it cost them their lives--made him a dangerous criminal in the eyes of Military government of Japan.

In the summer of 1941 he visited the United States in an attempt to avert war between Japan and the Us. After the war, despite failing health, he devoted himself to the reconciliation of democratic ideals and procedures with traditional Japanese culture.

He died in Tokyo on 23 April 1960.

During his life, Kagawa wrote over 150 books. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1947 and 1948, and Nobel Peace Prize in 1954 and 1955. After his death, Kagawa was awarded the second-highest honor of Japan, induction in the Order of the Sacred Treasure. He is commemorated in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America as a renewer of society on April 23 of the same year.

"I read a book that a man called Christ went about doing good. It is very disconcerting to me that I am so easily satisfied with just going about" Toyohiko Kagawa

He lived like Jesus Christ.....

Suggested readings;

1. Toyohiko Kagawa Revisited - Think Kagawa 賀川豊彦を考える
2. Kawaga Memorial Hall,
3. 賀川豊彦献身100年記念事業オフィシャルサイト,
4. Naruto City Kagawa Toyohiko Museum,
5. Unconquerable Kagawa. 1951. Reader's Digest. pg.29-31
6. Telling The Stories That Matter: April 27 - Toyohiko Kagawa, Poet, Pacifist, Friend of the Poor, April 27, 2010
7. 賀川豊彦と中国, 劉家峰, (In Japanese)
8. The Legacy of Toyohiko Kagawa, /Kagawa_article.pdf
9 Toyohiko Kagawa Revisited, by Robert M. Armstrong,
10. Jesus Band,
11. Christianity as a Transnational Social Movement: Kagawa Toyohiko, by Mark R. Mullins ,

Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Kano Jigoro(嘉納 治五郎) - Father of Judo

Here is another opponent of Japanese militarism, he is the father of Judo, involved in International Olympic until the last day of his life. He fight for Tokyo Olympic despite the odds was against him(included the Japanese military). Because of his patriotic spirit, and opposition to militarism, he whole hearty believed by having Olympic games in Japan, it will promoted the spirit of global peace in Japan and avoiding war by Japanese militarism. He successfully gained the right for Japan to hold 1940 Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo, but the game was later cancelled by Japanese government after his death.

As the military took over more aspects of Japanese life, Kano resisted the use of Judo for military purposes, over the militarists strenuous objections... he was bold to tell the military government, get out from Judo....

He may had failed, but the sport he found, Judo today is one of the regular sport event in Summer Olympic Games. His name and spirit of sport and peace continue throughout the world, through sport and Judo.....

He is a Japanese of only few who dare to stand up against militarism.

Kano Jigoro(嘉納治五郎, 28 October 1860 – 4 May 1938), 柔道の父

Kanō Jigorō(嘉納 治五郎, 28 October 1860 – 4 May 1938), creator of Judo and founder of the modern Japanese educational system, member of Japan's Olympic Committee, and de-facto foreign minister for Japan was a staunch opponent of militarism. Concerned that his Judo school, the Kodokan, would be used as a military training center, he obtained a promise from the Emperor that it would not be. Alternate sources list different causes of death, and some consider his passing to be suspicious.

Kano Jigoro(嘉納 治五郎) - Father of Judo

Judo was the first Japanese martial art to gain widespread international recognition, and the first to become an official Olympic sport. Pedagogical innovations attributed to Kanō include the use of black and white belts, and the introduction of dan ranking to show the relative ranking between members of a martial art style. Well-known mottoes attributed to Kanō include "Maximum Efficiency with Minimum Effort"「精力善用] and "Mutual Welfare and Benefit."「自他共栄」.

1860-1867 As a child

1860- Kano was born into a relatively affluent family. His father, Jirosaku(嘉納治朗作(希芝),b 1813-d1885), was the second son of the head priest of the Shinto Hiyoshi shrine in Shiga Prefecture. He married Sadako Kano(b? – d1869), daughter of the owner of Kiku-Masamune sake brewing company and was adopted by the family, changing his name to Kano, and ultimately became an official in the Bakufu government.
Kano Jigoro, the youngest of five children, was born in what is now Hyogo Prefecture on October 28, 1860. Jigoro Kano was born in the seaside town of Mikage in 1860. His father and uncle were both adopted by Kano family as mukoyoshi .

Note: A mukoyōshi (婿養子) (literally "adopted son-in-law") is a man who is adopted into a family without a male heir, and who takes the family's surname. (Traditionally in Japan, a woman takes her husband's name and is adopted into his family; see married and maiden names: Japan.) This is done to preserve the name and occupation of the family when there is no suitable male heir. Usually, when there is an unwed daughter of a suitable age, she will marry the mukoyōshi, but if there is no daughter, the mukoyōshi can take a bride from outside his adopted family. Mukoyōshi have a low status in society, yet in one study, up to a quarter of heirs in a community were mukoyōshi.

Milage was located near Kobe, famous for sake industry. Kano was the proprietor of the famous Kiku Masamune brand, now under Kiku-Masamune Sake Brewing Co.,Ltd.

1867- 188 As Student

1867- Jigoro Kano had an academic upbringing and, from the age of seven, he studied English, Japanese calligraphy (書道 shodō) and the Four Confucian Texts (四書 Shisho) under a number of tutors.

1870- Kanō became a student in 1870 in the Seitatsu Shojuku(成達書塾) in Ryōkoku, which is pretty much a school for learning how to write. His teacher was Ubukata Keidō. He also got acquainted there with the Chinese Classics. Ubukata-sensei himself was strongly influenced by Western thought and tried to convey this on to Kanō. Given Kanō’s young and inexperienced age, a first step to do was to recommend that he’d study English. He was sent to Mitsukuri Shūhei to do so.

1873- Studied at boarding school, Ikuei Gijuku, located at Karasumori-cho, Shiba, Tokyo. When he was fourteen, Kano began boarding at an English-medium school, Ikuei-Gijuku in Shiba, Tokyo. The culture of bullying endemic at this school was the catalyst that caused Kano to seek out a Jujutsu (柔術 Jūjutsu) dojo (道場 dōjō, training place) at which to train.

1874- Transfer to English Department, Tokyo School of Foreign Language. Classmate included Takaaki Kato, who later become Prime Minister. Tōkyō School of Foreign Languages or Tōkyō Gaikokugo Gakkō(東京外国語学校).

1875- Attended Kaisei School(Tokyo Kaisei Gakko), Tokyo (Now 開成中学校・高等学校(かいせいちゅうがっこう・こうとうがっこう、, Kaisei Junior & Senior High School). The school, which has produced many notable alumni, was founded in 1871. At first, it was established as a Kyōryū Gakkō of the prepschool to Senior school such as First High School(After the WWⅡ,this school was integrated into The University of Tokyo.). It is located in Arakawa, Tokyo. The school formed the foundation for the nation’s first university, Tokyo University, four years later in 1877. ( Source: The history of modern Japanese education: constructing the national school system,1872-1890, by Benjamin C. Duke, Rutgers University Press, 2009; pg 152-156)

1877- Mr. Kano studied politics and economic at Tokyo University(就讀東京大学文学部,主修哲學 東大文学部一年). Tōkyō University or Tōdai did not exist in 1875, and was only created in 1877; the old name of Imperial University (帝國大學, Teikoku daigaku) was only given in 1886, five years after Kanō graduated, and its name was changed again in 1897 into Tōkyō Imperial University(東京帝國大學 Tōkyō Teikoku daigaku) (see: http://www.u-tokyo.a.../b03_02_e.html)

The Faculty of Letters at The University of Tokyo is Japan’s oldest humanities department. It is comprised of the “three humanities” (philosophy, history, and literature) as well as the behavioral sciences. The Faculty of Letters dates back to 1877, the year the Tokyo Kaisei School and the Tokyo Medical School were combined into the University of Tokyo. From the beginning, the Faculty featured a curriculum that combined Western knowledge with Sino-Japanese scholarly traditions, and efforts have always been made to sustain a system of learning that maintains a balance between these two traditions. The University of Tokyo was later renamed Tokyo Imperial University, and after the war it was restructured under a new system, returning to its original name.(source: The History of Faculty of Letters,

1878 - He was a private school student at Nisho Gakusha (二松学舎), now Nishogakusha University,二松學舍大学)

二松学舍,从1877年三岛中洲在东京麴町一番町(现实东京都千代田区三番町)开设了的汉学私塾开始。二松的名庭园有象征不变的节操,坚贞的松之木二个的根据事,又的韩愈『蓝田县丞厅墙记』请求有作为校舍的意义,作为学校到将来继续的事被命名了. 日文和汉文的二松』

1979- Approached to teach in Gakushuin while still studying . Moved to Eishoji, and started preparatory school, Kano Juku( 嘉納塾) in Feb 1979 . Kano Juku( 嘉納塾)was a tutoring school(the forerunner of the Kodokan) where Kano taught English. Similar to the Kodokan at that time, he had few pupils.

1881- He graduated in July of 1881 (Meiji 14, 7th month)from Tokyo University with a Bachelor’s Degree of Letters or Bungakushi(文学士,東京大学文学部哲学政治学理財学科卒業). Noted, many sources stated Tokyo Imperial University, which is wrong, as it was still Tokyo University.

1882 – He returned to the same Faculty of Letters to focus on Aesthetics and Moral Philosophy, in what thus was graduate study (or as they call it in England ‘Postgraduate). He finished this study in July of 1882. It is there where he also studied under Ernest F. Fennolosa.

1882-1909 As Educator

1882- The year 1882 was a landmark year for Jigoro Kano. He was appointed lecturer(学習院教授補,Relief lecturer) in politics and economics at Gakushuuin(学習院). After appointment as lecturer in Gakushuuin, he moved to Eisho Ji (永勝寺).

In 1882 Kano Jigoro organized the Kodokan judo school at Eishoji, a Buddhist temple in Shitayakita, Kita Inari-cho, Tokyo(now Higashi Ueno, Daito –ku), Tokyo. Judo (Japanese: 'the way of softness'). It started as a twelve Tatami room.

He became an instructor of the Gakushuin in 1882 and eleven years.

In 1882 he started the Kobunkan English Language School. This school was to teach Japanese children the English language. The school was closed in 1889 when Dr. Kano took his first trip abroad.


Gakushuuin(学習院), a private school for the nobility or Imperial family members and peerage(Kazoku,華族), administrated by Gakushuin (華族會館). The college was initially found in 1847 in Kyoto Imperial Palace or Kyōto Gosho (京都御所), it then moved to Kanda Nishiki-cho ,Tokyo in 1877. The meaning of Gakushuuin(学習院) is Chinese characters for "to be taught" and "to learn" in the following quotation from the Analects of Confucius: "To be taught and to learn the truth is such a precious thing."

1882 - Gakushuin become independent from Peer Club(學習院脫離華族會館獨立),and under Ministry of education(文部卿).Note: 文部卿 was now Minister of Education( 文部大臣)from 1885.

1884 Gakushuin became a government school under the jurisdiction of the The Imperial Household Agency (宮內廳, Kunaichō), with entry now open to children from outside the ranks of the nobility as well. It was the only government college administrated by The Imperial Houehold Agency(宮內廳, Kunaichō), and not under Education ministry(文部卿).The college was under leadership of Lt General Tateki Tani , later Viscount Tani Tateki (谷干城), who later become Minister of Agriculture and Commerce in 1885.

The Imperial Household Agency (宮內廳, Kunaichō) is a government agency of Japan in charge of the state matters concerning Japan's imperial family and also keeping the Privy Seal and the State Seal. In 1911, it was named the Imperial Household Ministry (宮内省 Kunaishō).

Then, following the establishment of a higher education section, lectures in subjects such as politics, law and literature were held for 12 years between 1893 and 1905. It was later reformed in 1949 as a private university. Now it is Gakushuin University (学習院大學)(

1883- Kano received his teaching license in Kito-Ryu. The dojo was moved to larger area in Kanda, Tokyo.

1884-1887 Professor of economic at Komaba Agricultural College(now Tokyo University of Agriculture)駒場農学校理財学教授(駒場農学校(こまばのうがっこう)は、日本の旧制教育機関。現在の東京大学農学部、筑波大学、東京農工大学農学部の前身にあたる農学に関する日本初の総合教育・研究機関であった)

1885- It was reported he received his Doctorate from Gakushuin in 1885 and he was promoted to Professorship(教授), some even said he become Principal of Gakushuin. But the principal of Gakushuuin was 谷干城 from 1884-1885. May be he was promoted to Soninkan,a senior official. Gakushuin was not a university, it was not possible to award a doctorate degree.(戰前學習院只有幼稚園至高等科,雖然曾經於1893年嘗試開辦大學科,但於1905年廢止).

(In Japanese ‘instructor’ 師 or 指南番or lecturer 専任講師 is not a ‘professor’ 大学教授, but some college may called its lecturer 教授)

1886- Headmaster of Goko( 第五級高等學校校長,(旧制第五高等中学校),now Kumamoto University((現・熊本大学).

1887- In 1887 the young son of the Meiji emperor began attending the Gakushuin and Kano had the job of supervising his education and choosing his classmates. This student was destined to become the Taisho Emperor of Japan. In 1884 Kano was promoted to Soninkan which meant that he became a senior official appointed by the Imperial Household Agency and who had to report directly to the then Emperor. It seems quite likely that Kano taught him the ‘modern’ Western sciences of economics and politics

1888- Eventually a military man by the name of Lt. General Miura Sogo(三浦梧楼)was brought in to head the Gakushuin.

1889- Promoted as Vice-Principal of Gakushuin( 学習院教頭,きょうとう). Viscount Miura Gorō (三浦梧楼)was the principal from 1888 to 1892. A clash of opinions between Kano and Miura Gorō resulted in Kano being sent abroad for sixteen months by the Imperial Household Agency to Europe to study European education. Miura being a military man favored a more cadet style education at the Gakushuin and wanted to confine the school to educating the sons of the former military families. Kano on the other hand was keen to educate the brightest people without regard to their samurai background or lack of it.

1889 - 1891 - Kano spent sixteen months touring Europe. First trip was to Paris, France.

1891-1893 - on his return to Japan, he was sent to Kumamoto on the island of Kyushu where he was appointed headmaster of the Kumamoto High school (1891-3). In 1891 he left the school and became the principal of the No. 5 Junior High School(第五高等学校長)in Kumamoto, Kyushu. While as principal at the school he introduced Judo as an additional gym class.

1893- He was appointed as Chief of the Inspectorate for School Textbooks, Tokyo. Six months later, he was appointed as Principal in the No. 1 Junior High School in Tokyo. 4 months later he become Principal of Tokyo Teacher Training college or Tokyo Koto Shihan Gakko(東京高等師範学校)until 1897.

A Qing's Chinese education reformer, Zhang Baixi(张百熙)and Viceroy of Huguang, Zhang Zhidong (張之洞), asked Kano to instruct Chinese students in Japanese education methods in 1893.

1894- 1894 appointed as Principal of Tokyo Teacher Training college or Tokyo Koto Shihan Gakko(東京高等師範学校),東京高等師範学校附属中学校(現・筑波大学附属中学校・高等学校), now Junior and Senior High School at Otsuka, University of Tsukuba

1896- Followed Minister of Education(文部大臣) to visit Kansai region, Japan in April(に随行して4月関西へ出張)

1898- Appointed Principal of Tokyo Teacher Training college or Tokyo Koto Shihan Gakko(東京高等師範学校)for the 2nd time, he held the position for 6 months. He was then with the Ministry of Education (文部省 Monbushō) from 1898–1901(日本的文部省擔任部門的主管)

1899-Director/Head of Bureau of General Education or Monbusho(文部省普通学務局長).

"Kobun Gakuin" school or Hongwen xueyuan(弘文學院)was opened as preparatory school for students from Manchu China. Initially it was called 亦樂書院, opened in 1899

1901-1920- Reappointed 3rd time as Principal of Tokyo Teacher Training college (Tokyo Koto Shihan Gakko, 東京高等師範学校) , now University of Tsukuba(東京教育大学を経た現在の筑波大学)September of 1893, he was appointed to the position of Principal at the Tokyo Teacher's Training College, which would later become a part of Tokyo University. This was quite a prestigious position for someone only thirty-three years old. It was also a position Kano would hold for another twenty-seven years, until 1920.


Note: ^ 治五郎が東京高等師範学校附属中学校(現・筑波大学附属中学校・高等学校)の校長を務めたのは、1893年(明治27年) - 1897年(明治30年)の4年間、1898年(明治31年)に半年間、1901年(明治34年) - 1920年(大正9年)の20年間と通算では25年間近い。 同校の歴代校長の在任期間としては最長。

1899-1909 - The Kobun Gakuin(东京弘文学院) was founded as preparing schools for Chinese students in Japanese education. Approximately 8,000 students would visit this school and learn under the teachers Dr. Kano, the principal, selected. Dr. Kano was approached specifically for this. This shows how well Dr. Kano was respected in China and the rest of the world at this time. The Chinese students studied in the college included some of the famous personalities in modern China, including:

1. Lu Xun(魯迅,1881-1936), founder of modern Chinese literature ,
2. Huang Xing(黄興,1874-1916),Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen.
3. Yang Duo(楊度,1875-1931),politician
4. Qiu Jin(秋瑾,1875-1907),Chinese anti-Qing Empire revolutionary, feminist and writer. She was executed after a failed uprising and today is considered a hero in China.
5. Chen Duxiu(陳独秀,1879-1942), he was a leading figure in the anti-imperial Xinhai Revolution and the May Fourth Movement for Science and Democracy. Along with Li Dazhao, Chen was a co-founder of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921. He was its first General Secretary. Chen was an educator, philosopher, and politician.
6.Fan Yuanlian( 范源濂, 1876-1927), he was educationalist, Republic of China Minister of Education, Principal of Beijing Normal University

In 1902 Dr. Kano traveled to Peking, China. He went to share his ideas about solving the problem of education in China and visit Mr. Choshido . Unfortunately, the school was shut down in July of 1909; the year Dr. Kano became a member of the International Olympic Committee.

1909 July- Closed the Kobun Gakuin due to a decline in the number of students from China
Fall- Appointed as a member of the International Olympic Committee. Became the first Japanese member of the International Olympic Committee.

Kano is often called the father of Japanese Physical-education. He was in education sector of 26 years.

1909-1938 As Olympic Committee

1911 April- Established a judo teacher training school in the Kodokan; July- Established the Japan Sports Association and was appointed president

1912 July- Japan's first participation in the Olympic Games at the 5th Olympiad in Stockholm

1920 January- Retired as principal of Tokyo Higher Normal School

1921 March- Retired as president of the Japan Sports Association and became honorary president

1922 January- Established the Kodokan Culture Association . Elected to the House of Peers.

1922- He was elected to the Upper House of Aristocrats (Ki-zoku-In 貴族議員) in 1922 when Kano had turned sixty two. The House of Peers of Japan (貴族院, Kizokuin ) was the upper house of the Imperial Diet, as mandated under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan (in effect from 11 February 1889 to 3 May 1947). The House of Councillors(参議院 Sangiin) is the successor to the pre-war House of Peers.

During March 1922, Kanō brought all this to fruition through the introduction of the Kodokan Bunkakai, or Kodokan Cultural Association. This organization held its first meeting at Tokyo's Seiyoken Hotel on 5 April 1922, and held its first public lecture three days later at the YMCA hall in Kanda.

1924 March- Appointed honorary professor of Tokyo Higher Normal School((東京師範学校 Tōkyō Shihan Gakkō)

1927- Founding of Nada Middle School(灘中学). Now the school is known as Nada High School(灘高等学校),and Nada Junior High School(灘中学校)which is the affiliate school of Nada High School. The school was found by the sake producers of Nada Ku region(灘区). 嘉納治郎右衛門(菊正宗, now Kiku-Masamune Sake Brewing Co.,Ltd.(菊正宗酒造株式会社), 嘉納治兵衛(白鶴宗, now Hakutsuru Sake Brewing Company Limited (白鶴酒造株式会社), and 山邑太左衛門(櫻正宗, now Sakuramasamune Company, Limited (櫻正宗株式会社).

1928 Attended the Olympic Games in Amsterdam as a member of the International Olympic Comittee. He was giving a speech to first batch students at Nada Middle School(灘中学第一回入学式で訓辞)

1933- The aged expert was Sir Jigoro Kano, life-member of the Japanese House of Peers and Founder/President of Kodo-Kwan school, arrived by Hakosaki Meru on his way to Japan, after European tour. He demonstrated to crowd of 300 at Seaview Hotel, Singapore(The Straits Times, 5 November 1933, Page 1)

1934- In 1934, Kanō quit giving public exhibitions. He was giving speech at the first graduation of Nada Middle School(灘中学第一回卒業式で訓辞)

1936 July- Attended the IOC Session in Berlin where Tokyo succeeded in its bid to host the 12th Olympic Games (1940). In the vote conducted at the Berlin IOC Session in July 1936, Tokyo beat off the challenge of Helsinki by 36 votes to 27. Kano said the following at this session: "My 27 years of Olympic activity since becoming an IOC member have finally borne fruit. Now, the Tokyo Olympics must be an example to the world and the Olympics must use this opportunity to become a part of global culture." the first games held outside Europe and the USA. Japan was the first country in the Far East to be given a Games.

1938- In March, the IOC held its 38th Session in Cairo. Despite all rumors to the contrary, Japan declared that it did indeed intend to stage the Games irrespective of the persistence of war with China. Klingeberg (Techinical Advisor to Tokyo Olympic appointed 1-4-1937), present in Cairo to report on Tokyo's progress, lent verbal support to Japan's resolve. Many IOC members, however, harbored severe reservations about the Games remaining in Japan. In the face of an offer from Finland to stage both Summer and Winter Games if Japan could not, the members voted to give the IOC Executive Committee full authority to transfer the Games accordingly if the need arose.

Kano sought to have the 1940 Olympics held in Tokyo. "Sportsmanship is above war," he told one press conference. He succeeded, amazingly, at a time when Japan was seen as suspect and ruthless in its colonization of its neighbors. That Kano was successful can only be attributed to the great respect he had from the world, and also, undoubtedly, respect at his courage for seeking the games, to bring the spotlight of the world on Japan. America and England, both resolutely opposed to Japanese policies in the Far East, ultimately supported Kano's controversial bid.

Kano Jigoro(嘉納治五郎) died on 4-5-1938. Kanō died at sea, while on board the NYK Line motor vessel MV Hikawa Maru, while returning from Cairo. Jigoro did not return to Japan immediately after Tokyo won its hosting bid in Cairo. Instead, he attended the memorial service being held for Baron de Coubertin in Athens. He then traveled to the United States via Italy and France. In the United States, he met with the other IOC (International Olympic Committee) members and thanked them for their cooperation in Japan's bid to host the Olympics, and requested their help in ensuring that as many athletes as possible participate. This was very much in keeping with Jigoro's Judo creed of "beginning and ending with respect (a bow)". Having completed this duty, Jigoro boarded a ship for Japan, and died en route, never to set foot in his homeland again. His advanced age, combined with fatigue from the journey, had brought on pneumonia.

Within a few weeks of Kano's death, the government of Japan cancelled the games.

At 28th meeting of the organizing committee on 16-7-1938, the Minister of Public Welfare, Marquis Kido informed Japan’s decision of cancellation of Tokyo Olympic and Sapparo Winter Olympic.( Pg 121 – Pg 123, 1940 Tokyo Olympic Organizers Report)

Prince Iyesato Tokugawa, President of Organizing Committee, informed IOC on the development after cencellation of Tokyo Olympic(pg 174 –pg 175, 1940 Tokyo Olympic Organizers Report)

The Japanese government, faced with the possibility of two more years of conflict in China and shortage of funds and materials, has abandoned its support of plans to hold the 1940 games in Tokyo.

The Japanese army’s opposition to the game as an influence for internationalism, considered hostile to the orthodox military creed of Japan, also was a powerful factor in the decision to give up the Olympic.(source: The evening idependence , St. Petersburg, Florida 13-7-1938)

Within a few months, invaded China from Manchuria. The prime minister Prince Konoe Fumimaro(近衞文麿,b1891-d 1945) and his cohorts were all avid proponents of Budo (武道). Not to be confused with militarism, budo is a process of training throughout one's life to attain mastery of self.

May be he was extremely worried about the possibility of Tokyo Olympic before he died, and sad about the development of Japanese militarism ?....

Suggested reading/articles

1. Judo Memoirs of Jigoro Kano, by Brian N. Watson, Trafford Publishing, 2008
2. Pg 121 – Pg 123, pg 174 –pg 175 1940 Tokyo Olympic Organizers Report
3. Adolf Hitler, Carl Diem, Werner Klingeberg, and the Thousand Year Reich: Nazi Germany and Its Envisioned Post-War Olympic World, by Garth Paton and Robert K. Barney
4. The Olympic Movement and Kano Jigoro
5. Chen Duxiu's early years: The importance of personal connections in the social and intellectual transformation of China 1895—1920, by Anne Shen Chao, Rice University, ProQuest, 2009
6. 弘文學院退學風潮, 辛亥革命网 2010年11月11日 来源:辛亥革命網, 作者:王瑞慶
7.A Short History of Tokyo University of Education, Japanese)