Sunday, December 25, 2011

Merry Christmas from Bethlehem

Merry Christmas to all....from the birth place of Jesus Christ, Bethlehem.

Merry Christmas...pray for Palestinian Christians, especially Bethlehem Christian, their population is declining drastically in their own home land.

Bethlehem (or Bet Leḥem, Bayt Lahm) is a city located in the central West Bank and approximately 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) south of Jerusalem, with a population of about 30,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority and a hub of Palestinian culture and tourism. The Hebrew Bible identifies Bethlehem as the city David was from and the location where he was crowned as the king of Israel. The New Testament identifies Bethlehem as the birthplace of Jesus of Nazareth. The town is inhabited by one of the oldest Christian communities in the world, although the size of the community has shrunk due to emigration.

Many of Bethlehem's Christian inhabitants claim ancestry from Arab Christian clans from the Arabian Peninsula, including the city's two largest: al-Farahiyya and an-Najajreh. The former claims to have descended from the Ghassanids who migrated from Yemen to the Wadi Musa area in present-day Jordan and an-Najajreh descend from the Arabs of Najran in the southern Hejaz. Another Bethlehem clan, al-Anantreh, also trace their ancestry to the Arabian Peninsula.The percentage of Christians in the town has been steadily falling, primarily due to emigration. The lower birth rate of Christians also accounts for some of the decline. In 1947, Christians made up 85% of the population, but by 1998 the figure had declined to 40%. In 2005, the mayor of Bethlehem, Victor Batarseh explained that "due to the stress, either physical or psychological, and the bad economic situation, many people are emigrating, either Christians or Muslims, but it is more apparent among Christians, because they already are a minority.

In the center of Bethlehem is its old city. The old city consists of eight quarters, laid out in a mosaic style, forming the area around the Manger Square. The quarters include the Christian al-Najajreh, al-Farahiyeh, al-Anatreh, al-Tarajmeh, al-Qawawsa and Hreizat quarters and al-Fawaghreh — the only Muslim quarter. Most of the Christian quarters are named after the Arab Ghassanid clans that settled there. Al-Qawawsa Quarter was formed by Arab Christian emigrants from the nearby town of Tuqu' in the 18th century.

Bethlehem has a Muslim majority, but is also home to one of the largest Palestinian Christian communities. Bethlehem's chief economic sector is tourism which peaks during the Christmas season when Christian pilgrims throng to the Church of the Nativity.

(source: wikipedia,

In 1997, I was visiting Church of the Nativity, and that was the first time I saw the Arabic bible and Arabic Hymn book. The first time my knowledge of Palestine changed. I realized the picture that the mass media and some government media provided were totally not correct. Palestine is not a place for specific religion, there are Palestinian Christian.....there are Arabic Christian. Middle East is not all Arab....I begin to read history of middle east, may not be a good student, but at least I understand middle east better, better than many who still has wrong perception....I know who is Edward Said, I know where is Beit Jala....Middle East history is much more complicated ....Israeli-Arab conflict was wrongly perceived by the world as solely religion conflict, instead of political conflict, the issue is much more complicated with their long history of the land......of Near East, with wars, colonization, Turkification, Arabization, resulted in complication of religious conversion, cultural and language assimilation,and even the loss of ethnic identity, culture and languages. It was the sad story of Near East. from historical times, it was not easy for minority and the weak to survive in the Near East...

Another place to remember is Beit Jala....facing similar problem...

Palestinian Christians are Christians descended from the people of the geographical area of Palestine, the birthplace of Christianity. Within Palestine, there are churches and believers from many Christian denominations, including Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholic (Eastern and Western rites), Protestant, and others. In both the local dialect of Palestinian Arabic and in classical or modern standard Arabic, Christians are called Nasrani (a derivative of the Arabic word for Nazareth, al-Nasira) or Masihi (a derivative of Arabic word Masih, meaning "Messiah"). In Hebrew, they are called Notzri (also spelt Notsri) which means "Nazarene" in Hebrew.

The Palestinian Christian, like other Arabic Christian are living in dilemma, like sandwich between Israel Jews and Muslim Palestinian. The conflict between Jews(Israel) and Muslim Palestinian(Palestine), caused much psychological pressure and physical stress to them, they identify with Palestinian nationalism, many of them are in the front line of their struggle. But they are not able to identify in their religion, they are different and distinct as Christian. Some are not Arab per se, they cannot identify with the Pan-Arabism. This identity crisis created political pressure to their people , properties, and culture. They cannot identify with Jews, they are of different race and religion. The stress is too much to bear, they choose to emigrate to other countries. Their population is declining fast in their own land....

But the world identified them wrongly in the conflict, based on religion, they are wrongly perceived with Jews, based in culture and homeland, they are perceived with Muslim Arabs. (Ironically the three religions have the same root from Abraham, they should have close relationship). But they have their own distinct identity, Palestinian Christian, they are not Jews nor Muslim Arabs,only fact is that Palestine is their home land. Both did not give them a chance, they suffered the most in the Israeli-Arab conflict, but no body care because they are the minority, they have no political power, nor military power. Ultimately, they leave their homeland, and others moved in .... Jew settlement, Palestinian from other place and sooner there may not be any Palestinian Christian in the Bethlehem for Christmas. Bethlehem will lost its living heritage, the people of Palestinian Christian, and remained as a town for tourism only. We hope this will not happen....

......a sad story and yet the world is silence....and happy forever in their celebration of commercial Christmas....forgetting the people from the land of Christ, the land of Christmas, Bethlehem......

The world remember Christmas day, but forget the real story of the Christmas....

Note: The basilica was placed on the 2008 Watch List of the 100 Most Endangered Sites by the World Monuments Fund:

The present state of the church is worrying. Many roof timbers are rotting, and have not been replaced since the 19th century. The rainwater that seeps into the building not only accelerates the rotting of the wood and damages the structural integrity of the building, but also damages the 12th-century wall mosaics and paintings. The influx of water also means that there is an ever-present chance of an electrical fire. If another earthquake were to occur on the scale of the one of 1834, the result would most likely be catastrophic. ... It is hoped that the listing will encourage its preservation, including getting the three custodians of the church - the Greek Orthodox Church, the Armenian Orthodox Church, and the Franciscan order - to work together, which has not happened for hundreds of years. The Israeli government and the Palestinian Authority would also have to work together to protect it.

(source: World Monuments Fund,

Further references:

1. Palestinian Christians,
2. A Visit to Beit Jala,
3. Arab Christians,
4. Church of the Nativity,
5. Christians in the Middle East - 11 May 09 - Part 1 - Riz Khan at Al Jazeera English
6. Christians in the Middle East - 11 May 09 - Part 2 - Riz Khan at Al Jazeera English
7. List of oldest churches,

Monday, December 19, 2011

Nanking massacre & Comfort Woman

13th December, is the anniversary of the Rape of Nanking or Nanking Massacre.

On 18-12-2011, South Korea's visiting president Lee Myung-bak pressed his Japanese counterpart to resolve a long-standing grievance regarding Korean women forced to serve as sexual slaves during World War II, calling it a "stumbling block" in their relations.

Most of the Japanese military records on the Nanking killings and comfort woman were deliberately destroyed or kept secret shortly after the surrender of Japan in 1945. So until today, it was extreme difficult to obtain historical documentary evidences on the issues of Nanking Massacre and Comfort woman. Ironically the establishment of Comfort Woman system by the Japanese Imperial Army has direct relation with the Nanking Massacre, and General Okamura Yasuji (岡村寧次).

General Okamura Yasuji (岡村寧次)& Comfort Woman

General Okamura Yasuji (岡村寧次)is named as the first confirmed officer in the Japanese army who instituted forced prostitution. Widely known as the system of ' comfort women' or Ianfu. May be he should be called Father of Comfort Woman....he was also the one who was responsible for the Three Alls Policy in China. Yasuji Okamura(15 May 1884 – 2 September 1966) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, war criminal, and commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army from November 1944 to the end of World War II. But he was lucky as his good friend, General Chiang Kai-sek saved him from death, making use of him as Military Advisor to Nationalist Chinese Army from 1946-1949. (Note: this revealed that the war criminal court may not be truly independence but may be influenced by some country, especially USA). He was General Officer Commanding 2nd Division, China from 1936-1938, when the Rape of Nanking took place during the WW2.

The Three Alls Policy(三光作戦), originally referred to as "The Burn to Ash Strategy" (燼滅作戦 Jinmetsu Sakusen), was initiated in 1940 by Major General Ryūkichi Tanaka, but the Sankō Sakusen was implemented in full scale in 1942 in north China by General Yasuji Okamura(1884-1966) who divided the territory of five provinces (Hebei, Shandong, Shensi, Shanhsi, Chahaer) into "pacified", "semi-pacified" and "unpacified" areas. The approval of the policy was given by Imperial General Headquarters Order Number 575 on 3 December 1941. Okamura's strategy involved burning down villages, confiscating grain and mobilizing peasants to construct collective hamlets. It also centered on the digging of vast trench lines and the building of thousands of miles of containment walls and moats, watchtowers and roads. These operations targeted for destruction "enemies pretending to be local people" and "all males between the ages of fifteen and sixty whom we suspect to be enemies."(source: wikipedia)

While he was questioned by the investigators, he testified about the Nanking massacre:

"I surmised the following based on what I heard from Staff Officer Miyazaki, CCAA Special Service Department Chief Harada and Hangzhou Special Service Department Chief Hagiwara a day or two after I arrived in Shanghai. First, it is true that tens of thousands of acts of violence, such as looting and rape, took place against civilians during the assault on Nanking. Second, front-line troops indulged in the evil practice of executing POWs on the pretext of (lacking) rations”

His order on comfort woman can be traced back to 1932 with documentation of Japanese Lieutenant-General Okamura Yasuji’s proposal for a “shipment” of comfort women to be sent to Shanghai. He was the Deputy Chief of Staff of the Shanghai Expeditionary Army
Comfort Women In 1932, the Japanese army’s comfort stations began. The Japanese Lieutenant-General Okamura Yasuji, was trying to find a solution to the 223 reported rapes by Japanese troops. So the only solution that he could find was to ask for comfort women to be sent for his soldiers in Shanghai, China. The Japanese Army made use of comfort stations a lot until the war ended in 1945. At a typical comfort station, a soldier paid a fee, obtained a ticket and a condom, and was admitted to a woman's space.

March 1932 Following the “First Shanghai Incident”, 223 cases of rape by Japanese soldiers are reported in the area. Lieutenant-General Okamura Yasuji (岡村寧次) subsequently demands the creation in Shanghai of the first “comfort station” (慰安所 ianjo) for naval troops, an initiative immediately imitated by the Imperial Army. The number of Chinese as well as Japanese women rounded up is unknown (see the rest of the chronology for available numbers and estimates.)(Soh, 2005: 360, Hicks, 1994: 45, Yoshimi, 2000: 43-44)

The establishment of "comfort stations" providing on-site prostitutes for the Japanese army started as early as 1932, following hostilities between Japan and China in Shanghai. This was nearly a decade before the use of so¬called "comfort women" became a widespread and regular phenomenon, as it had undoubtedly become in all parts of Japanese-controlled East Asia by the end of the Second World War. The first military sexual slaves were Koreans from the North Kyushu area of Japan, and were sent, at the request of one of the commanding officers of the army, by the Governor of Nagasaki Prefecture. The rationale behind the establishment of a formal system of comfort stations was that such an institutionalized and, therefore, controlled prostitution service would reduce the number of rape reports in areas where the army was based

March 1933
According to testimonies, organised prostitution sections are gradually established under the name of “Young Women Auxiliary Corps” (若年女子補助部隊 jakunen joshi hojo butai) and set up by the Imperial Army Staff in Manchuria for the benefit of Japanese troops. (Some former victims claim that the corps dates back to 1931-32.) The total number of women abused is unknown. ** (Soh, 2005: 364-65)

(source ; Chronological Index: Japanese mass violence and its victims in the Fifteen Years War (1931-45) )

Nanking massacre

The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, was a mass murder, genocide and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During this period hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered and 20,000–80,000 men, women and children were raped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army

The event remains a contentious political issue, as various aspects of it have been disputed by some historical revisionists and Japanese nationalists, who have claimed that the massacre has been either exaggerated or wholly fabricated for propaganda purposes. As a result of the nationalist efforts to deny or rationalize the war crimes, the controversy surrounding the massacre remains a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations, as well as Japanese relations with other Asia-Pacific nations such as South Korea and the Philippines.

13 December 1937
The city of Nanking falls to Japanese troops under the command of General Matsui Iwane (松井石根). Rape, pillaging and executions by Japanese soldiers take place over the following six weeks, until January 1938, in the city and neighbouring area, making the precise localisation of the event a source of dispute. However, most reasonable historians today accept that what constitutes the incident is the plurality of cases of mass violence exerted first on the road to Nanking, and then in and around the city, whereas revisionists tend to reduce the area in which acts of violence were committed, in order to minimise the number of victims. Chinese civilians and soldiers alike are killed, either individually in sporadic acts of violence or machined-gunned and thrown into mass graves. The female population is subjected to mass rape by Japanese troops. The total number of victims is still the main source of public disagreement today. The Nanking Memorial Museum claims a total of 300,000 deaths and 20,000 rapes. Some revisionists/negationists in Japan still maintain that what is known today as “The Great Nanking Massacre” (南京大虐殺 nankin dai gyakusatsu) or “The Nanking Incident” (南京事件 nankin jiken) did not take place in these proportions and that there was a maximum of 50 Chinese victims. The vast majority of historians today put the death toll at over 200,000. (Brook, 1999, Fujiwara, 1997: 54-74, Ishida, 2006: 170, Kasahara, 1997: 201-232, Rabe, 1998, Yamamoto, 2000: 234-281, Yoshida, 2006: 11-26)
(source: Chronological Index: Japanese mass violence and its victims in the Fifteen Years War (1931-45) )

The Comfort Woman System or Military Prostitution

December 1937
The (first?) Japanese military brothel (in China) is set up by the Army in the city of Nanking, a few days after its fall, marking the beginning of the systematisation of this practice. Military police round up an unknown number (over a hundred) of Chinese women to serve as forced prostitutes. It is estimated that more than 1,200 women, a minority of them prostitutes, had been transformed into sex slaves by the Japanese Army by 1939. It is also widely believed that brothels had already been established in Manchuria, by and under the responsibility of the Kwantung Army, and had been in use by Imperial troops stationed there since 1931. If the Nanking “comfort station” is not technically the first such institution of its kind, it does, however, mark the beginning of their extremely rapid increase. *** (Imai & Iwasaki, 2010, Soh, 2005: 360-65, Tanaka, 2002: 12-19, Yoshimi, 2000: 53-54)

July 1941
In preparation for war with the Soviet Union, an estimated 10,000 Korean women are brought to Manchukuo to serve as “comfort women” for the Kwantung Army, and large numbers of brothels are set up throughout the area. (Yoshimi, 2000: 57)

(source: Chronological Index: Japanese mass violence and its victims in the Fifteen Years War (1931-45) )

When, in 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army captured Nanking, with resulting violence, the Japanese authorities were forced to consider the state of military discipline and morale. The comfort station plan as originally introduced in 1932 was revived. The Shanghai Special Branch used its contacts in the trading community to obtain as many women as possible for military sexual services by the end of 1937.

These women and girls were employed in a comfort station situated between Shanghai and Nanking, operated directly by the army. This station became the prototype for later stations and photographs of the station, as well as regulations for the users, are preserved. This station's direct operation by the army did not continue as the norm for comfort stations in the more settled environment which followed when the phenomenon became more widespread. There were enough private civilians willing to run the stations and to see to their internal operation; they were given paramilitary status and rank by the army. The army remained responsible for transportation and the general overseeing of the stations, and matters such as health and general supervision remained the responsibility of the military.

Following the rape of Nanking in 1937, it became apparent to the Japanese that discipline had to be improved and the "comfort women establishment" was revived. Agents were sent to the same area in North Kyushu, and when there was inadequate response from volunteers from brothels they resorted to deceiving local girls with offers of well¬paid jobs, ostensibly as cooks and laundresses for the army. Instead, they worked as military sexual slaves in a comfort station situated between Shanghai and Nanking, a centre which became the prototype for future stations.

Japanese buying/thieving of women’s flesh did not begin with the advent of comfort women. Diaries and military documents during the Russo-Japanese war reveal the popularity of brothels among the Japanese military during the early twentieth century. Japanese soldiers’ high demand for sexual commodities continued into the Shanghai War, the Manchurian conflict, and World War II. The pre-1937 brothels, although employing military physicians, were generally privately run. During the escalating war with China and the subsequent Second World War, the Japanese government took a more direct hand in the organization and operation of brothels or “comfort stations.” There was logic behind their depravity. The Japanese government, in the wake of the widespread murder, rape, and rampant destruction of Nanking by Japan’s military, argued that comfort stations allowed soldiers to release their pent up sexual aggressions in a controlled environment. Incidents such as the rape of Nanking, the Japanese government believed, would cause backlash and public outcry, but the systematic and covert recruitment of women as sex-slaves could go unnoticed. Comfort stations were also seen as necessary to reduce the spread of infections diseases11 among Japanese soldiers. One must be careful not to blame the sexual exploitation of comfort women solely on the horrors of war and thus create a simplistic “war equals atrocities” equation.

The unequal power-relations the comfort women experienced are much more complex The extent of the Japanese government’s involvement in running comfort stations is hotly disputed. After former comfort women came forward and shared their dark experiences, Japanese officials reluctantly apologized for military mistreatment of women. In 1992, Koichi Kato, the Chief Cabinet Secretary of Japan, stated, “I would like to express the sincere apology and remorse of the Government of Japan to all those…who underwent indescribable pain and suffering as comfort women.” Although offering an apology, Mr. Kato refused to admit government responsibility. Mr. Kato went on to state, “We did our best. Such problems, unthinkable in a time of peace, occurred in the midst of a war in which behavior often defied common sense.”. Mr. Kato evades government responsibility and relegates the pain inflected upon the comfort women as merely an unfortunate result of hysterical war fever.

(source: Colonizing sex: sexology and social control in modern Japan
By Sabine Frühstück, University of California Press, 2003)

After the war, comfort woman continue in Japan to provide service to the American GIs under RAA

RAA - The Recreation and Amusement Association

The occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers started in August 1945 and ended in April 1952. General MacArthur was its first Supreme Commander. The whole operation was mainly carried out by the United States.

An undated photo from the Yokosuka City Council in Japan shows U.S. sailors gathered in front of a "Yasu-Ura House" in the town south of Tokyo. Japan's practice of enslaving women to provide sex for its World War II troops continued after Americans began to flood the country after its surrender. U.S. occupation officials provided penicillin and condoms. (AP / Yokosuka City Council) Tens of thousands of women were employed to provide cheap sex to U.S. troops until the spring of 1946, when Gen. Douglas MacArthur shut the brothels down. Police officials and Tokyo businessmen established a network of brothels under the auspices of the Recreation and Amusement Association, which operated with government funds.

Seiichi Kaburagi, the chief of public relations for the RAA, wrote in a 1972 memoir that occupation GIs paid up front and were given tickets and condoms. The first RAA brothel, called Komachien - The Babe Garden - had 38 women, but due to high demand, that was quickly increased to 100. Each woman serviced from 15 to 60 clients a day. The Recreation and Amusement Association (特殊慰安施設協会 tokushu-ian-shisetsu-kyōkai) (RAA), or more literally Special Comfort Facility Association, was the official euphemism for the prostitution centers arranged for occupying U.S. armed forces by the Japanese Government after World War II. The RAA was created on August 28, 1945 by the Japanese Home Ministry and a civilian organization through joint capital investment (50 million yen each), officially to contain the sexual urges of the occupation forces, protect the main Japanese populace from rape and preserve the purity of the Japanese race. The official declaration of 19 August 1945 stated that "Through the sacrifice of thousands of 'Okichis' of the Shōwa era, we shall construct a dike to hold back the mad frenzy of the occupation troops and cultivate and preserve the purity of our race long into the future..." In September, the system was extended to cover the entire country. Allied GHQ (General Headquarters) commandeered these institutions (22 places of prostitution) on September 28 because rapes by the occupation army soldiers were frequent. In January 1946, the RAA was terminated by an order to cease all "public" prostitution. The ban is traditionally attributed to the efforts of former first lady Eleanor Roosevelt. General Douglas MacArthur declared all places of prostitution off limits in an attempt to counter the spread of sexually transmitted diseases on March 25, 1946 as by then more than a quarter of all American GIs in the Japanese occupation forces had a sexually transmitted disease

The Americans also had full knowledge by then of Japan's atrocious treatment of women in countries across Asia that it conquered during the war. Tens of thousands of women were employed to provide cheap sex to U.S. troops until the spring of 1946, when Gen. Douglas MacArthur shut the brothels down. The documents show the brothels were rushed into operation as American forces poured into Japan beginning in August 1945.

Japan 'gave GIs comfort women,

R&R - Rest and Recuperation

The RAA system was continued during Korea War and Vietnam war under R&R or Rest and Recuperation, leave Program for the United States Army G-1. Soldiers who are serving in areas designated as hostile fire and imminent danger area may be eligible for one Rest and Recuperation (R&R) trip per 12-month period. R & R is a chargeable leave program that authorizes use of ordinary leave and may not be combined with other absences. Soldiers must meet certain requirements to be eligible for an R & R trip.

R&R, military slang for rest and recuperation (or rest and relaxation), is a term used for the free time of a soldier in the US military or International UN staff serving in non-family duty stations. R&R includes various forms, including mail, sports, film screenings, "using the services of prostitutes" and leave time. During the Korea and Vietnam wars, you can see American GIs in Bangkok, and many designated R & R areas, and the development of prostitution services for the American GIs in R&R designated areas, another form of military prostitution system developed, isn't it similar to Comfort Woman system of Japan in another form? the only difference is there was an element of mutual consent in free market....

As time go by, many may have forgotten the war history; but the actual happening will still lingering in the mind of many families; some former comfort woman stations are still remained to remind the people of what happen during the war.

The feeling is just like what the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is not easy to delete from memories....

Japan is buying time to let people forget her war crime history, which created hostile relationship and adding more salts to the old wound; Germany boldly admitted the war crime history and looking forward to let time to heel the old wound and built new relationship.

Japan is still carrying the heavy burden of national pride of military nationalism......the price is high to maintain the pride of past glory.....

References & Suggested readings:

1. Chronological Index: Japanese mass violence and its victims in the Fifteen Years War (1931-45) )
2. Colonizing sex: sexology and social control in modern Japan(2003), by Sabine Frühstück, University of California Press, 2003
3. Comfort Women: Systems of Domination Revealed, by Jonathan Stratton,
4. Asian Holocaust : WMD Opium, Sex Slaves, Nanjing Massacre Pillage, Slavery, WMD Unit 731, 100, 516
5. Who are the Ianfu (Comfort Women)? Kirsten Orreill University of Queensland
6. Washington Coalition for Comfort Women Issues Inc,
7. Japan 'gave GIs comfort women',
8. Comfort Woman: A Filipina's Story of Prostitution and Slavery Under the Japanese Military (1999), by Maria Rosa Luna Henson, Rowman & Littlefields Publisher Inc, USA (Maria Rosa Luna Henson or "Lola Rosa" (Grandma Rosa) (1927- 1997) was the first Filipina to tell the world of her story as a comfort woman for the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.)
9. The Comfort Women: Japan's Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War(1997), by George Hicks, WW Norton & CO, NY.

Monday, December 12, 2011


It was filmed with It was filmed with a Nokia n8 handphone

Friday, November 25, 2011

Transport volunteers from Perak

何日君再来(Tresa Teng)


好花不常开 好景不常在 愁堆解笑眉 泪洒相思带
今宵离别后 何日君再来 喝完了这杯 请进点小菜
人生能得几回醉 不欢更何待

[白]来, 喝完这杯再说吧!

今宵离别后 何日君再来
停唱阳关叠 重擎白玉杯 殷勤频致语 牢牢抚君怀
今宵离别后 何日君再来 喝完了这杯 请进点小菜
人生能得几回醉 不欢更何待

再喝一杯,干了吧!今宵离别后 何日君再来











劉雪庵 - 《何日君再來》的作曲者

(source: wikipedia)

Suggested further reading:

Wednesday, November 23, 2011

Welcome on board

Wah, life will be easy....

Friday, November 18, 2011

Beautiful life

Who murder Liao Zhongkai(廖仲恺,1877-1925)

Liao Zhongkai(廖仲恺,1877-1925)was one of the three most eligible successor of Dr Sun Yat-sen after his death on 12-3-1925. The other two were Hu Han-min and Wang Jing-wei. General Chiang Kai-sheh was still junior member in Kuomintang(KMT), the Nationalist Party. Liao Zhong-kai was murdered on 20-8-1925, not long after Dr Sun died.

Hu Han-min was one of the suspect. But the relationship of Hu and Liao was a close one, they are both from Guangzhou, both studied in Japan. Hu went in 1902 first to The Kobun Gakuin or Kobun Institution(东京宏文学院), withdraw his study due to some political incident. He returned in 1904 to study at Hosei University(法政大学), attended Hosei University’s Crash Course for Manchu students(清朝留学生法政速成科). Liao Zhongkai also went in 1902, studied political science in Waseda University(早稻田大学), and continued in 1907 to Chuo University((中央大学), to study political and economic science. They, Hu and Liao, met in Japan.

Note: Some reported he studied at Tokyo University(東京大学). The former name of Chuo University was Tokyo University of Law (Tokyo Hōgakuin Daigaku, 東京法学院大学)from 1903 to 1905. When Liao entered the university in 1907, the name had changed to Chuo University in 1905. Tokyo University of Law (Tokyo Hōgakuin Daigaku, 東京法学院大学)is not Tokyo University, formerly kniwn as Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku (Tokyo Imperial University,東京帝國大學).

Hu and Liao, and their families stayed in the same rented house while in Japan. They joined Tongmenhui(同盟会)together in 1905. Their only political difference is, Hu is a constitutionalists, the right wings and Liao is a socialist, the left wings. With their strong relationship from student days in Japan, it is not thinkable that Hu was the suspect of the murder. Liao was not very ambitious in politic. Dr Sun did mentioned when commented why he appointed Hu instead of Liao as acting Generalissimo, and Governor of Guangdong. Dr Sun answered if I appointed Hu, there will be no problem for Liao, but if I appointed Liao, there will be problem for Hu. Hu as close friend of Liao, must know the personality of Liao. Anyhow, Hu was appointed as acting Generalissimo by Dr Sun before his death. Hu was a powerful man in KMT(Kuomintang)at that time, the only weakness is that he has no military base, which was the important factor for leadership in KMT at that time.

But Liao is the only one among the three who had military & revolutionary experience, good in treasury management, strong in party position and with government appointment. He control the party's financial well, and was non-corrupt. A clean politician and far sighted leader. He is a strong man for any top post in politic or government , if according to western standard, but not in China. He is too simple, not ambitious, and working wholeheartedly for his country. He is firm in his political principle. After the death of Hwang Xing, he was the military adviser that Dr Sun looked for. He was the leader of the left wings. He supported Dr Sun's alliance with the communists. He has the support of the Russia and Chinese Communist Party.

Wang Jing-wei was also a close friend with Hu, since their founding of study group, Qunzhihui(群智社), studied together, going to Japan together in 1904. They met Liao in Japan. Wang also joined Tongmenhui at the same time with Hu and Liao in 1905. He was the allies of Liao in the left wings of Kuomintang(KMT). Wang, however was the classmate of Hu Han-min in Hosei University, the 2nd batch, graduated together in June 1906. To provide the clue on how close is the relationship between Hu and Wang, when Wang was imprisoned by Manchu for attempt murder of 2nd Prince Chun, Hu was worried and cried after received the news while in Penang. He tried very hard to raise fund to help Wang to escape from prison. Wang become Chairman of Nationalist Government, Nanjing on 1-7-1925, instead of acting Generalissimo Hu Han-min. It was reported that this was the source of rivalry between Wang and Hu. Wang also become the chairman of Central Political Council, the other members being Liao Zhong-kai and Xu Chong-zhi(許崇智, 1887-1965). Wang was not politically ambitious initially, he left immediately after release from the prison, to further study in France with his new wife, Chen Bijun(陈璧君), not going after any official position. He was a disciplined man, a non-drinker, not a womanizer, nor a gambler. He has no followers, too clean to be liked by fellow politician. His frequent changes in political stance, amazed many, may be he had personal agenda unknown to others. Ironically, Wang was also one of the target of the assassination.

Liao, Wang and Hu known each other since university days in Japan, joined Tongmenhui together. They went through the toughest times of revolution together, following closely with Dr Sun. There is not possible that any one of them to be a killer of Liao, despite some political difference. Hu , Wang and Chiang were all the member of the powerful KMT Central Executive Committee(CEC). They were the most influential at the time. But after Dr Sun's death, Liao was murdered, the remaining two was split politically, Wang later become traitor, Han faded away. Chiang becomes stronger and ultimately the most powerful man in KMT or Kuomintang.

Another suspect was Hu Yisheng(胡毅生, 1883-1957), paternal cousin of Hu Han-min, who was member of the Western Hill fraction of KMT, a right wings, who gather at the temple at Western Hill, Beijing after Dr Sun's death. With the pretend of praying for Dr Sun, but actually having political gathering in the temple, discussed issues, including their rivalry with Liao Zhongkai, the leader of left wings. Hu Han-min known about the gathering, but did not take any action to stop it. Both Han brothers were the main suspect. Hu Yisheng escaped to Hong Kong. Hu Yisheng also know Liao since university days in Japan, together with Wang Jingwei, Hu Han-min, Liao Zhongkai, they went to Japan in 1904, joined Tongmenghui in 1905. Hu Yisheng was the introducer for them. Hu Yisheng contested for mayor of Guangzhou in August 1925, but because of corruption case, he did not attain his ambition and Liao was then the financial minister, that may be the source of conflict between them. But it was reported by the killer that Hu Yisheng paid for the murder, with their long relationship, can Hu Yisheng willing to risk his party reputation and governmnet position to do it? Can it be fabricated story by the killer and the master mind?. The incident of the murder effectively erased the power base of Hu Han-min and Western Hill fraction in KMT. Ironically, Hu Yisheng was later appointed in senior position in the government after the Pacific war.

Liao, Wang and both Hu brothers, known each other since university days. They have been together during revolution days. There is not possible any of them to be a killer of Liao. They may have conflicts, just like in their student days, but not to the extent of taking each others life. The case was not followed closely by the police, and it was hang there historically even until today, nobody know the true story behind the murder.

When soldiers from Whampoa led by Wang and Chiang visited Hu's house, Hu had already escaped and went to hide in Wang's house. Wang and his wife, family friend of Hu, were trying to protect him. He also went to Chiang's house and was arrested and imprisoned in Whampoa Academy, where General Chiang was the principal, Liao was also the party representative in Whampoa, and Hu was the political instructor. On 23-9-1925, Hu was released and went to Russia for official tour. Hu had lost his political power, but still maintain his political influence as senior revolutionary member of KMT. The official tour was actually an act of political exile oversea.

The case was then closed after Hu exiled to Russia. Some of the suspects were captured and later released, some even appointed into the government position by Chiang (e.g. Lin Zi Mian(林直勉, 1888-1934) and Liang Hongkai(梁鸿楷). Guo Minqing(郭敏卿), son in law of Zhu Zhuowen(朱卓文, 1875-1935) who escaped to Hong Kong, the owner of the gun used by killer was executed. Liang Bo(梁博), the joint killer faced with death sentence, and was executed in August. Why the case was closed, and the master mind was not convicted, who was the actual person behind the murder?...the killer disclosed that the man from Hong Kong pay for the murder(香港给胡毅生、魏邦平几十万元打‘猛子’(‘猛子’系广东方言,指有名望、有权势的大人物),给两百万元打共产党”), who was the master mind from Hong Kong?.....

The only person who benefited from the death of Liao Zhongkai was General Chiang Kai-seh. He was the most ambitious man in KMT as junior member. The incident eliminated Liao and Hu in the path of the more junior General Chiang to leadership of KMT. Many KMT right-wing leaders were demoted like Lin Sen and Dai Jitao. This effectively made Chiang the second most powerful person in the KMT after Wang Jingwei. On 20-8-1925, General Chiang Kai-sheh become the Commander in Chief of National Revolutionary Army. Chiang took over General Xu Chongzhi's role as commander of the KMT's military since Xu was suspected of either taking part of the assassination, knowing about it, or was simply incompetent in providing security. The history of China after Dr Sun's death was in fact the history of political rivalry of Chiang and Wang. Wang was the only challenger remained in his path to the top post in KMT and China. Chiang Kai-shek eventually ousted Wang Jingwei following(using)the Zhongshan Warship Incident in the spring of 1926. For the first time in 1926, Chiang become the Central Executive Committee(CEC). He also took over the chairmanship of Central Military Council from Wang Jing-wei. After the Nationalists' successful Northern Expedition, Chiang had consolidated his position, as dictator of KMT, he become powerful both in the KMT party and in military.

Chiang also had past history of murdering Tao Chengzhang(陶成章)in 1912. He was educated in Japan military school and served in Japan Imperial Army. Member of secret society, and God brother of Chen Qimei(陈其美, 1878-1916), the uncle of Chen Guofu and Chen Lifu(CC clique), who introduced him to Tongmenhui. Chen was the Godfather of the underground secret societies, Green Gang(青幫) in Shanghai. Chen Qimei was the one who instructed Chiang to murder Tao Chengzhang, who had personal conflict with Dr Sun Yat-sen. Chen was later murdered in 1916. His family, Chen family was one of the big 4 family(Soong, Kung, Chen, Chiang) which has strong political influence in China at that time, their CC clique was the strong supporter of General Chiang Kai-seh.

One of the close follower of Chiang was Dai Li(戴笠, 1897-1946), as the Chief of the Kuomintang (KMT) Army secret service in China, Dai Li helped to develop China's modern intelligence organization in 1928. He was a gambler until he met Criminal Boss of Shanghai, Du Yuesheng(杜月笙,1888-1951), head of the Green Gang(青帮). It was through Du, that Dai Li met Chiang Kai-seh. Dai enlisted in the 1st Student Regiment of the sixth class of The Nationalist Party of Chinese Army Officer Academy, also commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy. Chiang soon made him a student informant within the academy to spy on Communist activities where he played an instrumental role in the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Dai later becomes the boss of The Bureau of Investigation and Statistics or BIS(军统),the intelligence agency of the Republic of China (1938-1946). The most fear government organization by the politician, which was strongly under Chiang's disposal. The BIS secret police was distributed amongst the Kuomintang's military, police, administration, and transportation agencies, as well as embassies and consulates abroad. It specialized in surveillance, kidnapping, assassinations, and other means of arrest. Imagine what will happen to Chiang's political rivals.....Dai was also the head of the Blue Shirts Society, a fascist organization that did security and intelligence work for Chiang.

I was also pondering why the modus operandi was so similar to the Japanese political situation where many social reformists and leftist politician were murdered? ......remember Black Dragon Society and their spies in China were doing their homework at the time for the future invasion by Japanese Imperial Army all over the cities of China.....also remember many of the revolutionists and senior KMT members were students from Japan, having close relationship with Japanese politician and secret societies. Chiang had been a student in Japanese military academy and served in Japanese Imperial Army(just like Lee Teng Hui, former President of Taiwan). Is Chiang also a member of Green Gang, a powerful underground crime secret society? Du Yuesheng(杜月笙), Chen Qimei(陈其美),Dai Li(戴笠) and Chiang Kai-seh, you see the connections? Is there any connection between Green Gang and Japanese Black Dragon Society? ......and how many revolutionist had been killed by them?....

Chiang was initially a leftist, but later changed to right wings when he had consolidated his power base, and becomes very anti-communists. He make use of Liao and Wang and their relationship with Russia. Who give him the support when he start cleaning KMT of its communist or leftist members. Is that any foreign support for Chiang, who was so daring to challenge Russia?...The strange thing in the murder of Liao Zhongkai was that, Chiang was also one of the target, is it the true or just rumor issued by interested party?.....

Chiang becomes the most powerful man with his military base from Whampoa, the 4 families' support(Soong, Chen, Kong and Chiang) and the CC clique. He make use of money and position to buy political support. He will do anything to achieve what he want, even to the extent of killing. He was also the greatest actor in the political drama to fabricate untrue story and create events(should be plays) to meet his personal political agenda. If there is Oscar award for political drama, he should has won the trophy.....he make history, change history, fabricate history and hide history....

Who murder Liao Zhongkai?.....

You should follow and know the Chinese history after the death of Liao Zhongkai. One after one of the Wang Jing-wei(in Hanoi) and Hu Han-min(in Singapore)were facing attempt murder on their life, they were played around by Chiang, resulted in internal conflict of KMT. Wang was seriously injured and joined the puppet government of Japanese supported government in Nanjing. Now some historian suspect there may be some untold story about Wang Jing-wei, his about turn in political stance puzzled many. Hu Han-min was exiled in Hong Kong and slowly faded away from politic. It was also reported that he may have been murdered. Chiang as smart strategist and opportunist, slowly gaining his power base, aided by his military background, and their supporters, especially from Chen family. He becomes the strong man of modern China, a dictator, not liked by people from mainland China and Taiwan. But through his wife Soong Mei Ling, he was the close allies of USA, even he personally dislike them, strongly support his regime in Taiwan during the cold war.

But who was the strong supporter behind General Chiang?......he even come to the stance of refuse resistance when Japan invaded China. General Chiang Kai Seh was also the one who make the way for General Okamura(冈村宁次) to escape from war criminal charges for his crime in China. After the war, General Okamura was convicted for war crimes in July 1948 by the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal but was immediately protected by the personal order of Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek, who retained him as a military advisor for the Kuomintang (KMT) government (wikipedia). General He Yingqin(何应钦)was a close ally of General Chiang and close friend and classmate of General Okamura at Imperial Japanese Army Academy(陆军士官学校). As chairman of the Beijing Military Committee, which was the supreme organ in charge of the military forces of Northern China. He advocated no direct confrontation with the Japanese troops, and signed the Tanggu Cease-Fire Accord with Okamura Yasuji (岡村寧次), who was deputy chief of staff of Kantogun at that time. After that, General He Yingqin opposed campaigns and efforts against the Japanese, and disarmed Feng Yuxiang's anti-Japanese army. In August 1945, when Japan announced its unconditional surrender, He was appointed as representative of both the Chinese Government and the Southeast Asia Ally Forces to host the surrender of Japanese troops in China. On Sept 9th, He accepted the statement of surrender submitted by General Yasuji Okamura, who was General Commander of Japanese troops in China at that time. This historic moment put He under the spotlight of the world, and was the peak of his career. At that time, General Chiang and General He had negotiated favorable terms of surrender for General Okamura, their close friends. The start of evil plan for a civil war with Chinese Communist Party even before even signing of the surrender document. General Okamura, General He, General Chiang known each other when in Japan. Who is behind General Chiang?....the strong stance to go against Russia and communists?.....General Chiang will do anything to achieve his personal goal, is the military plan of Japanese militarism provide a perfect strategic match for his personal agenda? General Okamura was the one considered as the man behind Japanese militarism. Is there any connection between this relationship?

Will Chiang's diary disclose the true fact? as a smart and cunning man, he will not disclose any negative factor in his life.....

You should now find the missing puzzle, who was the murderer, without even the help from KMT police, whose chief happen at that time was a right wing supporter, who eagerly close the file. But in law, there is such evidence known as Circumstantial evidence.....that will provide the clue for the puzzle....

The other unknown Xinhai Revolution heroes

Zhu Zhixin(朱执信, 1885-1920) and other missing heroes

In Xinhai Revolution, Dr Sun Yat-sen is the one who commonly and popularly being the one who gained the credit and he was named " Father of China". But in actual fact, the Xinhai Revolution is not an isolated event of one revolution, it was the series of events, not only just Tongmenhui, but also other revolutionary parties who were involved. Even before Tongmenhui, there were various progressive institutions inside the Manchu empire, who were concerned about the future of their nation. Dr Sun provided the leadership for the mass movement which had initiated in Manchu empire.

The other heroes in Xinhai Revolution included Hwang Xing, some called him "2nd father of China", Hu Han-min(胡漢民, 1879-1936), Wang Jing-wei(汪精卫),Song Jiaoren(宋教仁, 1882-1913), Liao Zhongkai(廖仲恺,1877-1925) Zhao Shen(趙聲, 1881-1911), Ni Yingdian(倪映典 1885-1910), Zheng Shiliang ,Lu Hao-tung(陸皓東,1868-1985),Yeung Kui-wan(楊衢雲),Tao Chengzhang(陶成章,1878-1912) and Zhu Zhixin(朱执信, 1885-1920) and many others.

Some, their names had been forgotten, some died as hero, but now unknown, some withdraw from politic after seeing the political chaos and internal conflict of KMT/Tongmenhui members. The internal rival of the followers of Dr Sun after his death resulted in the coming of Chiang Kai-sheh, another modern warlord, military man trained in Japan and served in Japanese Army, and who was an opportunist and smart strategist. He made use of the conflicts between members, eliminated the senior competitors one by one, even using the tactic of murdering his rivals and competitors. He was directly involved with the murder of Tao Chengzhang(陶成章) in 1912. He become like Yang Shi-kai, a military dictator contributed to more chaos and divided in China. He rewrote history according to his fancy.

Why students from USA and Europe were not involved in the chaos of the early Chinese politic, and only students from Japan? In USA and Europe(who were more interested in their economic and religion interest), the Chinese students need to complete the proper course taken by the local students. In Japan the Chinese students from Manchu(1902-1910) took crash course of 1-2 years, shorter than local Japanese students. Is the crash course(1-2 years)in Japan the cause of all these, a well plan strategy to let Manchu fall? Noted only Wesda University refuse to participate in the offering of the crash course by Manchu official. The quality of the crash course for Manchu students were weak and not able to prepare the students to acquire knowledge required. They have more time for revolution than study, why?.. Japan privately encourage revolution against Manchu, indirectly through Black Dragon Society, riding on the emotion of the progressive students(against Manchu)for their ultimate plan....invasion of China?....

Tao Chengzhang, Song Jiaoren, Liao Zhongkai, Hu Han-min, Wang Jing-wei, fell one by one. Song was suspected kill by Yan Shi-kai, but he had once invited Song to help his government. The others were also the obstacles of General Chiang's political ambition and his master. Chiang and may be, Japan militarism were the main suspect who planned the murder. Hu and Wang were reported died of illness, but Wang and Hu had attempt murder on them. Who will do that? They were not soldiers, but civilian democrats, right or left, other than power struggle, either national or global politic, who will do that?.....From the historical events which make Chiang the powerful dictator and his non resistance against the Japanese invasion, and later the invasion of China by Japan Imperial Army, the Black Dragon Society who had spies in China for their later military Manchuria invasion. There were historical connection. The murder of these senior revolutionists is very similar to what happen in Japan at the time, where many politician and social reformists were assassinated by the military fraction or rightists. There may be a big plan by some country, supported some individuals, to make chaos in China for their global ambition at that time.

We have seen many of revolutionists mentioned in history were students from Japan, but there were students returned from USA and Europe, who were quietly involved in another revolution in science and technology. They were also the one who contributed to the modern China, who remained unknown. Some from Europe involved in communism, which later formed the core of Chinese Communist Party(CCP) which rival KMT(with the support of Russia, and worry of Japan).

History is not only for one man, make by one man, or from a simple environment, it is from interaction of many people, complicated political environments. But human habit of glorify leader and leader of winning party, resulted in many historical figures become unknown or forgotten. We must not only remember the history figure who had been glorified by historian as leader, but also commoners who had contribute to history. We also remember the global political environment at that time ...

In the 100 years of anniversary, we remember them......

Today, we remember Zhu Zhixin....

Saturday, November 12, 2011

Guangzhou and Dr Sun Yat-sen

The earliest recorded name is Panyu (番禺), named after the two nearby mountain Pan and Yu. It was the capital of the ancient kingdom called Nanyue(南越) in 206 BC, which included today's Vietnam. The Han Dynasty annexed the Nanyue Kingdom in 111 BC and Panyu became a provincial capital and remains so today. Today, Panyu is a district of Guangzhou south of Haizhu District separated from the rest of the city by the Pearl River.

Historically it was also known as Canton to the west, or Kwangchow. It is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province(广东省)in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River(珠江), about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is today a key national transportation hub and trading port.

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Dr Su Yat-sen was born on 12 November 1866 to a Cantonese Hakka family, in the village of Cuiheng(翠亨村), Xiangshan(香山县), now known as Zhongshan county(中山市), Guangzhou prefecture, Guangdong province in Qing China. Xiangshan is not far away from Guangzhou(广州), at that time already a trading hub, a place of activities.

Dr Sun Yat-sen first come to Guangzhou in 1886 to study medicine at the Guangzhou Boji Hospital (博济医院)under the Christian missionary John G. Kerr. In 1887, Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese(香港西醫書院)was inaugurated; Sun Yat-sen was one of its first students. It was located at 81 , Hollywood Road. Ultimately,in 1892 he earned the license of Christian practice as a medical doctor from the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, which was later formally incorporated into The University of Hong Kong(incorporated in 1911) in 1912.(source: It was in the medical college, he involved with a group of revolutionary thinkers,Chan Siu-bak (陳少白, 1869-1934), Yeung Hok-ling(楊鶴齡, 1868-1934), Yau Lit(尢列, 1864-1936), the group was named the "Four Bandits". He opened his first clinic at Macau(澳门). later moved to Guangzhou and opened a clinic at Xiguan/Sai Kwan in Guangzhou(广州西关冼基西开设东西药局). The clinic and Guangzhou was also the place he had meetings with his fellow revolutionists.

Dr Sun was actively involved in revolution movement after he closed his clinic in Guangzhou. He participated in the first Guangzhou uprising in 1895. He did not directly involved with New Army Uprising and Huanghuagang Uprising, but was the leader of Tongmenhui who started the uprisings.

Guangzhou was a significant place in the life of Dr Sun Yat-sen, the Father of China, who spent major part of his life in Guangzhou.

1895 Guangzhou first Uprising(第一次廣州起義)

In the second year of the establishment of the Revive China society on October 26, 1895, the group planned and launched the First Guangzhou uprising against the Qing in Guangzhou. Yeung Kui-wan(楊衢雲), directed the uprising starting from Hong Kong. However, plans were leaked out and more than 70 members, including Lu Hao-tung(陆皓东, 1868-1898), were captured and killed by the Qing government. Dr Sun, Zheng Shiliang(鄭士良, 1863-1901),Chan Siu-bak, Yau Lit and Yeung escaped and left Hong Kong. The uprising was a failure. Dr Sun later exiled in Japan.

1910- New Army Uprising(庚戌新军起义/廣州新軍起義) - The 2nd Guangzhou Uprising

The uprising was actually the first uprising by the new army. he New Armies (新軍) were the modernized Qing armies, trained and equipped according to Western standards. The first of the new armies was founded in 1895, following Japan's victory in the First Sino-Japanese War.On December 8, 1895, Empress Dowager Cixi appointed Yuan Shikai(who later become the President of ROC from 10 March 1912 - 22 December 1915) the commander of the 4,000 men who formed the basis of the first New Army. The New Army was gradually expanded and upgraded in the following years.The New Army of Yuan was renamed the Beiyang Army on June 25, 1902 after Yuan was officially promoted to the "Minister of Beiyang". By the end of the dynasty in 1911, most provinces had established sizable new armies; however, Yuan's army was still most powerful, comprising six groups and numbering more than 75,000 men. The Qing unified all of China's armies into one force, the "Chinese Army", which was commonly still called the New Army. Two-thirds of the Chinese Army was Yuan's Beiyang Army.

During the Xinhai Revolution, most of the non-Beiyang forces as well as some Beiyang units in the Chinese Army revolted against the Qing. The most famous was the Wuchang Uprising, which was actually New Army mutiny. However the first new army uprising was the 2nd Guangzhou uprising on 12-2-1910 at Guangzhou. It was also historically called New Army Uprising. This was the 9th failed uprising by Tongmenhui, but the first led by new army, the actual soldiers, and not secret societies or members of Tongmenhui.

Hu Han-min after failure in Yunnan Hekou Uprising(云南河口起义)reported the feedback to Dr Sun in Singapore, one of the main reason for many failures was lack of military soldiers in the uprising. Dr Sun instructed Hu to return to Hong Kong in March 1909 to prepare the ground work for the recruitment of the solders from the new army to join the revolution. The set up an office at Guangzhou(广州豪贤街天官里寄园巷5 号). Ni Yingdian was recruited, Zhao Sheng was no longer with the army, and already member of Tongmenhui. Together they form a team for the recruitment campaign to recruit soldiers who are on leaves. Many soldiers from new army joined the Tongmenhui.

The people behind the uprising were Huang Xing, Zhao Sheng(趙聲, 1881-1911),Ni Yingdian(倪映典 1885-1910) and Zhu Zhixin(朱执信,1885-1920). Ni Yingdian, who was the 2nd in command of Guangzhou New Army Uprising, was a former officer of new army. He died in the uprising. The other three escaped, and later participated in the next Huanghuagang Uprising(黃花崗起義). Zhao was the one who work underground to promote and recruited revolutionists in the new army. He was also a former officer in the new army. He recruited Ni Yingdian. Zhao Shen died of frustration after failure of Huanghuagang uprising in 1911.

The plan initially on 24/2/1910 was met with problems of finance and bullets. It was postponed until 24/2/1910, the Chinese new year day. But an event of dispute on 9/2/1910 , between a soldier from new army and trader, evolved into confrontation of the new army and local police, which accidentally sparked off the uprising. Ni Yingdian immediately rushed to Guangzhou from Hong Kong, took over the leadership and declared the uprising on 12/2/1910. Ni died in action, and the uprising end in failure.

The soldiers who died during the uprising was buried at Temple of the Ox King(牛王庙), now known as Xian Lie Zhong Lu(先烈中路).

1911- Huanghuagang Uprising(黃花崗起義/三二九起义)

Yellow Flower Mound revolt (黃花岡之役, 黄花岗起义) or (黃花崗起義/黄花岗起义) is an uprising led by Zhao Shen(趙聲, 1881-1911) and Huang Xing(黃興, 1876-1916) and his fellow revolutionaries against the Qing Dynasty in Guangzhou.

On 13 November 1910, Sun Yat-sen, along with several leading figures of the Tongmenhui—such as Zhao Shen, Huang Hsing, Hu Hanmin, and Deng Zeru, gathered for a conference at Penang in British Malaya. Having experienced countless failures in previous uprisings, they plotted a decisive battle in Guangzhou against the Qing Government.

On 27 April, Zhao Shen and Huang Hsing commenced the uprising in Guangzhou.

More than 130 people were led by Huang Xiang to attack the government offices for one day and a night. Lin Juemin(林覺民), Yu Peilun, Lin Shishuang and many other heroes gave their lives in the process. Revolutionaries fought fiercely with the Qing Army in the streets, but the rebels were eventually outnumbered and lost. Lin Juemin(林覺民), Yu Peilun, Lin Shishuang and many other heroes gave their lives in the process.

The remains of 72 rebels were later collected by members of Tongmenhui and interred together at Huanghuagang or Yellow flower Hill(黃花岡), originally known as Red Flower Hill. He was Pan Dawei(潘达微), a member of the Hongmenhui or Alliance Society, who risked his life to bury 72 of the martyrs at Huanghuagang in the Tomb of 72 Martyrs in Guangzhou. The martyrs were commemorated as the "72 martyrs". But actually it was more that 72, it reported 86 martyrs, but historically it is still popularly called 72 martyrs. Tomb of 72 Martyrs or Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs in Guangzhou was built in 1918. The monument was to pay homage to the martyrs who died in the Huanghuakang Uprising, Guangzhou mutiny on April 27, 1911 against the Qing dynasty.

Dr Sun Yat sen, the Father of China, reported that the event is as important as Wuchang Uprising.Some historians believe that the uprising was a direct cause of the Wuchang uprising(武昌起義), which eventually led to the Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命) and the founding of the Republic of China.

Huanghua Gang Commemoration Park (黄花岗公园), located at 79, Xianlie Zhonglu, Guangzhou(广州市先烈中路79号)was a park in Guangzhou to commemorate the uprising.


After the Xinhai revolution, the Republic of China was formed. On 29/12/1911, Dr Sun was elected as the Provisional President of the Republic of China. On 13/2/1912, however Dr Sun submitted his resignation to the Provincial Senate. On 14/2/1912, the Provisional Parliament accepted Dr Sun’s resignation and elected Yuan Shi-kai as the Provisional President. Dr Sun returned to Guangzhou at end of April 1912 to support the election of Hu Han-min(胡漢民) as the Governor of Guangdong(廣東都督).

Guangzhou become a power base of Dr Sun. Between 1917 to 1925 , Guangzhou was the administrative capital of two Constitution Protection movement started by Dr Sun. Dr Sun was in Guangzhou 3 times to establish revolutionary government.

Thereafter, Dr Sun was involved in the 2nd Revolution against Yuan, after its failure he was exiled in Japan. He formed the Chinese Revolutionary Party(中华革命党, 1914-1919) in Japan, as KMT had been banned by Yuan. Yuan died on 6-6-1916, and Li Yuanhong succeeded as president and Duan Qirui became the Premier. Duan later had conflict with Li on issue of China's entry into World War I. Li was against it, Duan who support the entry was dismissed, this started the war, and Duan regained his premiership with the support of the warlords. Duan Qirui's triumphant return to Beijing essentially made him the most powerful leader in China. Duan dissolved the parliament upon his return and declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary on August 13, 1917

(i) 1917-1918 - Generalissimo of the Military Government of Nationalist China(海陆军大元帅).

In September 1917, Duan's complete disregard for the constitution caused Dr Sun Yat-sen and the deposed parliament members to establish a new government in Guangzhou and the Constitutional Protection Army (護法軍) to counter Duan's abuse of power. Ironically, Sun Yat-sen's new government was not based on the Provisional Constitution. Rather, the new government was a military government and Sun was its "Grand Commander of the Armed Forces" or "Generalissimo"(大元帥). Six southern provinces became part of Sun's Guangzhou military government and repelled Duan's attempt to destroy the Constitutional Protection Army. The Constitutional Protection War essentially left China divided along the north-south border, the north by Beiyang Government, and the south by Guangzhou Military Government.

1918, April- The Parliament forced by warlords in Guangxi to reorganize the military government in Guangzhou. Lu Rongting and his Black Flags of Guangdong and Guangxi forced Sun Yat-sen to abandon his military government. Sun announced his resignation as generalissimo on 4-5-1918. The Parliament’s extraordinary session on 18-5-1920 elected a directorate of seven members, including Sun. Dr Sun resigned and departed for Shanghai on 21-5-1918, to concentrate on writing. He left Guangzhou for Shanghai with hu Han-min after the first Constitution Protection Movement failed.

1919- 1920

On 17-8-1919, Dr Sun resigned his post as the Military Government was manipulated by the Guangxi warlords.

In October 1919, Sun reestablished the Kuomintang (KMT) to counter the government in Beijing.He spent his remaining years trying to consolidate his regime and achieve unity with the north. His efforts to obtain aid from the Western democracies were ignored, however, and in 1920 he turned to the Soviet Union, which had recently achieved its own revolution. The Soviets sought to befriend the Chinese revolutionists by offering scathing attacks on Western imperialism. But for political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Chinese Communist Party (CCP).

(ii)1921-1922 - Extraordinary President of Nationalist China(非常大总统)- Single Party government

1920 Aug. 16, Chen Jiong-ming, acting on Sun’s order, commanded the Guangdong Army in Zhangzhou, Fujian to quell the Guangxi warlords. On 29-10-1920, Guangzhou was recovered by the Guangdong Army. Dr Sun arrived in Guangzhou on 29-12-1920 to restore the Military Government and extraordinary session of the Parliament.

1921- On 2nd April 1921, the extraordinary session of the Parliament decided to dismiss the military government. On 7th April, 1921, the Parliament passed the Organization Guidelines for the Republic of China and elected Sun as the "extraordinary president". 1921 May 5- Sun was sworn in as the President of the Republic of China and the government was formed.

On 1921 Oct. 8- Dr Sun proposed a northern expedition program to the Parliament.

1921 Dec. 4- Sun established general headquarters in Guilin, Guangxi

1922January- Sun moved the general headquarters from Guilin in Guangxi to Shaoguan, Guangdong. 1922 Feb. 27- The Northern Expedition Pledge Ceremony was held in Guilin.

1922Jun. 16- Chen Jiong-ming rebelled in Guangzhou. Sun fled to the Navy Headquarters and commanded the Navy to launch counter-attacks. Chen disagreed with Sun about the direction that reform should take. Dr Sun wanted to unite the country by force and institute change through a centralized government based on a one-party system. Chen advocated a multiparty federalism with Guangdong becoming the model province and the peaceful unification of China. Sun became suspicious that the federalist movement was being exploited by the warlords to justify their military fiefdoms. Relations deteriorated further when Sun became "extraordinary president", a move not condoned by the Provisional Constitution. Sun Yat-sen and Chen Jiongming soon split over the continuation of the Northern Expedition.

Chen led his forces to attack Sun's residence as well as office. Chen forced Sun to escape on a ship and delay his Northern Expedition.

1922Aug. 9- Northern Expedition troops retreated in defeat. On Nov. 14, Sun went to Shanghai where he issued an declaration denouncing Chen Jiong-ming on the next day.

1923- By this time Sun had become convinced that the only hope for a unified China lay in a military conquest from his base in the south, followed by a period of political tutelage that would culminate in the transition to democracy. In order to hasten the conquest of China, he began a policy of active cooperation with the Communist Party of China (CPC). Sun and the Soviet Union's Adolph Joffe signed the Sun-Joffe Manifesto in January 1923. Dr Sun received help from the Comintern for his acceptance of communist members into his KMT.

With the help of Tang Jiyao, the KMT retook Guangzhou in 1923. Chen fled to Huizhou in eastern Guangdong after Sun's army defeated him. From 1923 to 1925, the Guangdong government organized two eastern campaigns against him and he fled to Hong Kong as his remaining forces were completely wiped out in 1925. Ironically, Chen joined Tang Jiyao after Tang was expelled from the KMT following the Yunnan-Guangxi War.

(iii)1923-1925 - Generalissimo of the National Government of Nationalist China(大元帅)

1923Feb. 21Sun arrived in Guangzhou to establish the general headquarters and resumed as the generalissimo. 3 days later, he called for disarmament. 1923Mar. 2- The general headquarters was officially established and Chiang Kai-shek was appointed as the Chief of General Staff. 1923Oct. 6Michael Borodin, Representative of the Soviet Union, arrived in Guangzhou and was appointed as the advisor on party organizing by KMT.

With the Soviet's help, Sun was able to develop the military power needed for the Northern Expedition against the military at the north. He established the Whampoa Military Academy near Guangzhou with Chiang Kai-shek as the commandant of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA, 國民革命軍). Other Whampoa leaders include Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin as political instructors. This full collaboration was called the First United Front(第一次国共合作).

1924 September- Sun went to Shaoguan(韶關) to command the Northern Expedition and published The Northern Expedition Declaration. Hu Han-min was acting for him as Generalissimo.

Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall(中山纪念堂), 广东省广州市越秀区东风中路259号

The premise was used by Dr Sun during the 1921 2nd Constitution protection movement. Chen Jiongming(陈炯明, 1878-1933) led his forces to attack Sun's residence as well as office in 1922. Chen forced Sun to escape on a ship and delay his Northern Expedition. The building was damaged.

The Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall is an octagon-shaped building in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. The hall was designed by Lu Yanzhi (吕彦直, 1894-1929)and was built with funds raised by local and overseas Chinese people in memory of Sun Yat-sen. Construction work commenced in 1929 and completed in 1931. The hall is a large octagonal structure with a span of 71 meters without pillars, housing a large stage and seats 3,240 people.

Having been severely damaged it was repaired and improved several times until 1998, when it was comprehensively upgraded to its present-day condition. A statue of Sun Yat-sen was erected in front of the main entrance.

Memorial Museum of the Generalissimo Sun Yat-sen's Mansion(大元帅府, 廣東省廣州市海珠區紡織路東沙街18號)

It was located at No.18, Dongsha Street, Fangzhi Road, Haizhu District, Guangzhou.Dr Sun used the premise as his office in 1917 and 1923.

It was originally the Guangzhou Cement Factory that was set up in the Qing Dynasty in 1907 and was named the Generalissimo's Mansion because Dr. Sun Yat-sen established democratic revolutionary government twice in 1917 and 1923 respectively. In Nov, 1996 the State Council announced it as the national protected key relic. In October, 2003 it was listed as one of the patriotism education based in Guangzhou.
In October, 1998, the former site of Generalissimo's Mansion was prepared to construct the Memorial Museum of the Generalissimo Sun Yat-sen's Mansion. The Museum includes the South and the North Main Buildings, the Gate Tower, the East and the West Squares, It exhibits the Restoration of Generalissimo's Mansion through the hundred-years, illustration of the three establishments of government by Sun Yat-sen, photo show of Guangzhou in old China.

Whampoa Military Academy (黄埔军校/黃埔軍校)

The Nationalist Party of China Army Officer Academy (中国国民党陆军军官学校/中國國民黨陸軍軍官學校), commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy (黄埔军校/黃埔軍校), was a military academy in the Republic of China (ROC) that produced many prestigious commanders who fought in many of China's conflicts in the 20th century, notably the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
The military academy was officially opened on May 1, 1924 under the Kuomintang (KMT), but the first lessons began on June 16, 1924. The inauguration was on Changzhou Island offshore from the Whampoa dock in Guangzhou, thus earning its common name. During the inaugural ceremonies, Sun Yat-sen delivered a speech that was later to become the lyrics of the national anthem of the Republic of China.

Guangdong University(now Sun Yat-sen University(中山大學) or SYSU)

Sun Yat-sen University, originally known as National Guangdong University(國立廣東大學), was founded February 4,1924. by Dr. Sun Yat-sen (also called Sun Zhongshan), a great democratic revolutionary leader of the 20th century. The University is located in Guangdong Province, an area neighboring Hong Kong and Macao, which is at the forefront of China’s reform and opening up. It was renamed Sun Yat-sen University(中山大學)on July 17,1926.

Being one of the leading universities in the People’s Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen University is a comprehensive multi-disciplinary university, including the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, technical sciences, medical sciences, pharmacology, and management science. At present, Sun Yat-sen University covers a total area of 6.17 square kilometers and has 4 campuses: Guangzhou South Campus, Guangzhou North Campus, Guangzhou East Campus, and Zhuhai Campus.

Tianzi Pier or Tianzi Wharf or Tian Zi Matou(天字码头)- 广州第一码头

It is where Yanjiang Zhong Road(沿江中路)and Beijing Road(北京路)meet, or where Beijing Road South or Beijing Nanlu (South Bank of Pearl River),Yuexiu District, Guangzhou where Beijing Nan Lu meets the river.(北京路南端珠江堤岸(原址在北京路接官亭南侧,20世纪30年代迁至现址)

Guangzhou Tianzi Dock or Tianzi Pier, has the longest history of Pearl River ferrying. The dock was built during Qing Dynasty Yongzheng Period, more than 270 years ago. It used to receive officers of the feudalistic government, other boats were prohibited to pull in. So the people call it Tianzi (the number one) Dock.

After the dock was refurnished in the year 2000, the dock has served as the terminal of the Pearl River day and night cruise Pearl River tour, as well as running the local “water bus”, carrying passengers across the Pearl River to Binjiang East Road and the Sun Yat-sen University in Haizhu District. It is especially famous for the Pearl River Night Cruise tour.

At the invitation of General Feng Yu-xiang, Sun visited Beijing to discuss the strategy for peaceful unification. Before his journey, Sun issued a declaration calling for the convening of National Conference and the abolishment of all unequal treaties.

Dr Sun Yat-sen left Tianzi Pier, Guangzhou on 13-11-1924, this was the last time he was in Guangzhou. He passed away in Beijing on 12-3-1925.

If you ever visit Guangzhou, there is always interesting to visit the places that Dr Sun had once walk and lived ........

Thursday, November 10, 2011

The last days of Dr. Sun Yat-sen

These are the videos on the last days of Dr Sun Yat-sen(1866-1925), produced by CCTV, I shared with the readers, because it is clearer, and most important the video is in English and with English sub-title when Chinese was spoken.

This was the videos on the last days of Dr Sun's life, from the day he accepted the invitation of General Feng Yu-xiang(冯玉祥, 1882-1948) to go north, to Beijing. It was the period from the journey to the north until his death, the last journey of his life. Dr Sun devoted all his life for China, like his political journey, his last journey was not peaceful, it was filled with political struggle, even until his last breath, his mind was still thinking of China, the unification of the Beiyang government and the southern national government. The unity of one China. He was concerned about the unequal treaty and the democracy of the nation. The debate on the representatives of the people's congress. But as expected, the power crazy warlord and their representative Duan Qi-rui(段祺瑞, 1865-1936) failed him. No one give him a chance even at the last moment.

He died in disappointment, without seeing unification of China, even until today.

Political development after Dr Sun's death was even worst than the his era, other than the warlord, power struggle between left and right camps of KMT. They used the tactic of assassination, learnt from their education in Japan politic. Liao Zhongkai(1877-1925)was killed. Hu Han-min(1879-1936) was sent to Russia and died later, suspect killed. There was split in the KMT party between Chiang Kai-sheh(1887-1975) and Wang Jing-wei(1883-1944). Their personal clashes upgraded to a national political issue, and Wang become a premier in puppet government for Japan.

His faithful followers were assassinated, killed, imprisoned, faded away from political life or committed suicide. The nation was controlled by one party militarism or communism. China is still divided today......

This was the last journey of the father of China.....100 years ago...yet, the journey of republican is still not completed, he is still working hard in heaven, revolution is not yet complete, the Chinese still need to be put in extra effort....

But it seems the Chinese is more concern with the pursuit of economic success, forsake the 5000 years of civilization and culture, become a nation of money making machines and corruptions, money is the determining factor for everything in life....they are now more capitalist than their former colonists, even to the extreme...the poor are far away from the rich, and the gap become wider each day....

The people failed Dr Sun and other revolutionists of Xinhai Revolution, due to selfishness and rivalry......

The spirit of the Three Principles of People is still weak and may be faded away...

The journey to republican under the Three Principles of People , when will it be completed and accomplished, without the unity of the people and nation?.....

When celebrating 100 years anniversary, Taiwan and China, need some soul searching...the steps toward unity and democracy, is as heavy as the last journey of Dr Sun Yat-sen.......

New Frontiers 2010-01-21 The last days of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (3) CCTV-International

New Frontiers 2010-01-21 The last days of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (3) CCTV-International

New Frontiers 2010-01-20 The last days of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (2) CCTV-International

Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Visit of General Chiang Kai Shek and members of Nanking Government to tomb of Sun Yat Sen


Just click the historical video by British Pathe

Sunday, October 30, 2011

What happen to humanity in China?

Who is that little kid, YueYue?

A two-year-old girl who captured headlines and hearts all over the world after she was hit by two vans and left to die by 18 passersby has died. Local media is reporting that Yueyue (悦悦) died in the early hours of Friday morning after a week-long battle for life. Yueyue was struck by two separate vehicles in the southern Chinese city of Foshan last Thursday. Seven minutes after she had been pummeled by traffic, during which time several people witnessed the accident and did not help, a local refuse-collector picked her up and propped her against a sack of rice

Yueyue sadly passed away.....

The nation may be economically strong, but the moral and civic minded level of the Chinese have been going backward and did not match with the economic progress. We remember what happen in London recently, now it happen in China.

What happen to our human civilization? going backward at the internet era? when our heart become machine...... or just because of economic pursuit of money, the society become less human....everyone look like money making machine, and that is their only aim in life......

We can care for the pet dogs, love pet dogs; yet we have no time to love human...even a little child.....

It seems the country with great economic success, everything is valued with self interest; their manufactured foods, their railways, their buildings, their products, now even their responsibility for other human life provided I make money; and the corruptions, making things go worst. The normal people has changed, the law did not protect them for doing right, and now they are afraid to do the right thing.

What kind of society is this?......

Suddenly I remember Cultural Revolution; this is a different cultural revolution when the hearts of people go inhuman....during the cultural revolution, the people had no financial power but this time they have financial power. Yet a cultural transformation is taking place, a cultural change to the capitalist world of self interest....and every thing is valued by money, people become arrogant, addicted to showmanship of their riches , resulted in wastage of resources, environment pollution, and over extreme form of self interest capitalist.

Everything is like tofu, even the human hearts.....

I wonder if this is the signal for something , a signal for the change...

Will China lost the respect of the world, due to their own making?....the publicity in Time Square, New York will not help to improve their image....

The public image of a country will be adversely affected, and it is not a small matter. When a human life has no value in the society.....

It is a strong signal to the people, to the government.....something wrong somewhere, despite economic success....

It happen to Norway, it happen to London, and it is now happen in it a trend where human life is worthless?....

Monday, October 17, 2011


I was in Kuantan for more than 20 years

A peaceful place to stay

Until one day they start built chemical factories

and now rare earth related....

Remember the rare earth in Bukit Merah, sometime ago,

Mishibishi is quietly cleaning up, even until now...

Now the Lynas from Australia,

who is going to clean up next time?....

We may not know what is radioactive,

But we know the harmful effect,

just look at the rare earth mining in China,

and look back at recent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster,

they also tell them not to worry when they built,

But the worry come in 2011....

They say that is difference between atomic plant, rare earth plant,

We do not know the difference,

but we cannot trust radioactive things,

no matter what they say, they would not be there if thing happen...

but the residents will be there...

We just want simple living in peace,

yet they come,

they break our dream...

.... and now Mitsubishi is 10% owner of Lynas....


1. Mitsubishi Quietly Cleans Up Its Former Refinery,
2. Rare earth element,
3. Chronology of events in the Bukit Merah Asian Rare Earth development
4. Japanese Multinational Corporations and the Export of Pollution,The Case of Bukit Merah, by Fumitaka FURUOKA & May Chiun LO,
5. Bukit Merah survivor: Our tears have run dry,
6. Japan's Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group buys $324m stake in Lynas Corp,
7. Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster,

A Day Made of Glass...

If that is true, and turn into reality, that will be nice...

But I am worry, my careless wife may break all the glasswares,

Then, I need to pay for more replacement than enjoy life with glass...

May be a class to conduct how to handle glassware at the Idiots level to people who cannot work with glass...

Glass instead of Apple, anyone?....

Friday, October 14, 2011

The Last Emperor - Pui Yi (愛新覺羅溥仪)

Pui Yi(愛新覺羅溥仪, b 1906-d 1967)

Puyi (溥仪/溥儀) (7 February 1906 – 17 October 1967), of the Aisin Gioro(愛新覺羅) clan, was the last Emperor of China. He ruled China in two periods between 1908 and 1917, firstly as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) when he was only 2 years 10 months , ruled from 2 December 1908 – 12 February 1912 (3 years, 72 days), and nominally as a non-ruling puppet emperor for twelve days in 1917. He was the twelfth and final member of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over China. Between 1 March 1934 – 15 August 1945(11 years, 167 days) , he was the Kangde Emperor (康德皇帝) of Manchukuo. He is widely known as The Last Emperor (末代皇帝). Puyi lost his imperial title in 1924.

1908 The Child Emperor

Emperor at the age of 2, a child emperor...

Puyi's father, the 2nd Prince Chun(醇親王)or Zaifeng(愛新覺羅載沣, 1883-1951), served as a regent from 2 December 1908 until 6 December 1911 when Empress Dowager Longyu(隆裕皇后) or Empress Xiao Ding Jing (孝定景皇后) took over in the face of the Xinhai Revolution from 6 December 1911 – 12 February 1912.

1911 Xinhai Revolution and the end of Qing Dynasty -the last emperor

1911 – The Xinhai Revolution ended the Qing Dynasty. Pui Yi was the last emperor(1908-1912). Empress Dowager Longyu signed the "Act of Abdication of the Emperor of the Great Qing" (《清帝退位詔書》) on 12 February 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution, under a deal brokered by Yuan Shikai (the great general of the army Beiyang) with the imperial court in Beijing (formerly Peking) and the republicans in southern China. Signed with the new Republic of China, Puyi was to retain his imperial title and be treated by the government of the Republic with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. He and the imperial court were allowed to remain in the northern half of the Forbidden City (the Private Apartments) as well as in the Summer Palace. A hefty annual subsidy of 4 million silver dollars was granted by the Republic to the imperial household, although it was never fully paid and was abolished after just a few years.

1917 Manchu Restoration or Emperor Restoration Incident

The second time as Emperor,constitutional mornach for 12 days at the age of 10 years old kid....

1917- In 1917, the warlord general Zhang Xun (張勛), popular called pigtail general(辫帅) of Pigtail Army(辫子军), his soldiers all kept their "queue" or pigtails. Zhang Xun restored Puyi to his throne for twelve days from 1 July 1917 – 12 July 1917(12 days). Zhang ordered his army to keep their queues (long plaits or "pigtails") to display loyalty to the emperor. During those 12 days, one small bomb was dropped over the Forbidden City by a republican plane, causing minor damage. This is considered the first aerial bombardment ever in East Asia. The restoration failed due to extensive opposition across China, and the decisive intervention of another warlord general, Duan Qirui( 段祺瑞,1865-1936)

1924 Farewell to Forbidden City

On 5-11-1924, the last emperor Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City in Beijing by warlord Feng Yuxiang(冯玉祥/馮玉祥, 1882-1948), the Christian General. Feng imprisoned Zhili-leader and 3rd president Cao Kun(曹錕) of Republic of China

He installed the more liberal Huang Fu(黃郛,1883-1936), evicted the Last Emperor from the Forbidden City, and invited Sun Yat-sen to Beijing to resurrect the Republican government and reunify the country. Sun came to Beijing, despite illness and died there in April 1925.

Puyi spent a few days at the house of his father 2nd Prince Chun, and then temporarily resided in the Japanese embassy for a year and a half. In 1925, he moved to the "Quiet Garden Villa" in the Japanese Concession in Tianjin.

1932 Puppet Emperor of Manchukuo

He was the emperor for 3rd times from 1 March 1934 – 15 August 1945 (11 years, 167 days)

On 1 March 1932, Puyi was installed by the Japanese as the ruler of Manchukuo, considered by most historians as a puppet state of Imperial Japan, under the reign title Datong (大同). In 1934, he was officially crowned the emperor of Manchukuo under the reign title Kangde (康德). he was only 28 years old, the 3rd times as Emperor, but this time not for China, but Manchukuo, where his ancestry come from in North Eastern China.

At the end of World War II, Puyi was captured by the Soviet Red Army on 16 August 1945 while he was in an airplane fleeing to Japan. The Soviet army took him to the Siberian town of Chita. He lived in a sanatorium, but was later taken to Khabarovsk near the Chinese border.

In 1946, he testified at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo, detailing his resentment of how he had been treated by the Japanese.

After Chinese communists took over mainland China, Puyi was repatriated to China in 1949, spent ten years in a Fushun War Criminals Management Centre.

1959 A reformed man - a commoner

Puyi came to Beijing in 1959 with special permission from Chairman Mao Zedong and lived the next six months in an ordinary Beijing residence with his sister before being transferred to a government-sponsored hotel. He subsequently worked as an editor for the literary department of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, where his monthly salary was around 100 Yuan, an office in which he served from 1964 until his death in 1967.

Cultural Revolution 1966 - the end of last emperor of China

Mao began the Cultural Revolution in 1966, and the youth militia known as the Red Guards saw Puyi, who symbolized Imperial China, as an easy target of attack. Puyi was placed under protection by the local public security bureau, although his food rations, salary, and various luxuries, including his sofa and desk, were removed. Puyi became affected physically and emotionally. He died in Beijing of complications arising from kidney cancer and heart disease on 17 October 1967. Puyi's body was cremated. His ashes were first placed at the Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery, alongside those of other party and state dignitaries (before the establishment of the People's Republic of China this was the burial ground of Imperial concubines and eunuchs). In 1995, as a part of a commercial arrangement, Puyi's widow transferred his ashes to a new commercial cemetery in return for monetary support. The cemetery is located near the Western Qing Tombs (清西陵), 120 km (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, where four of the nine Qing emperors preceding him are interred, along with three empresses, and 69 princes, princesses, and imperial concubines.

In all his life, Pui Yi had been puppets for others, he was a emperor for the use of either the imperial family or political opportunists or Japanese militarists, never a time he was a real emperor. He has a dream after he grow up, to be a real emperor, 1932 was the year he was waiting for, a realized of his emperor dream. But it was also the dream that started the journey to another destination that few people want, a prison. From emperor to a prisoner, what a drastic change in life, and the psychological pressure on him.

He silenced himself for many years, surrounded only by plants in his garden and books in the library. He started to learn how to become a commoner. But fate was against his wishes, he was still an emperor, the last emperor. In 1966, come the Cultural Revolution, the political fanatic never give him a chance, and took the opportunity to end his self pride, and dug out his sad historical past. The mental and physical abuses was too much for him, now old age of 61 years old, he died in 1967, reported kidney cancer.....or political pressure....