Friday, November 18, 2011

Who murder Liao Zhongkai(廖仲恺,1877-1925)

Liao Zhongkai(廖仲恺,1877-1925)was one of the three most eligible successor of Dr Sun Yat-sen after his death on 12-3-1925. The other two were Hu Han-min and Wang Jing-wei. General Chiang Kai-sheh was still junior member in Kuomintang(KMT), the Nationalist Party. Liao Zhong-kai was murdered on 20-8-1925, not long after Dr Sun died.

Hu Han-min was one of the suspect. But the relationship of Hu and Liao was a close one, they are both from Guangzhou, both studied in Japan. Hu went in 1902 first to The Kobun Gakuin or Kobun Institution(东京宏文学院), withdraw his study due to some political incident. He returned in 1904 to study at Hosei University(法政大学), attended Hosei University’s Crash Course for Manchu students(清朝留学生法政速成科). Liao Zhongkai also went in 1902, studied political science in Waseda University(早稻田大学), and continued in 1907 to Chuo University((中央大学), to study political and economic science. They, Hu and Liao, met in Japan.

Note: Some reported he studied at Tokyo University(東京大学). The former name of Chuo University was Tokyo University of Law (Tokyo Hōgakuin Daigaku, 東京法学院大学)from 1903 to 1905. When Liao entered the university in 1907, the name had changed to Chuo University in 1905. Tokyo University of Law (Tokyo Hōgakuin Daigaku, 東京法学院大学)is not Tokyo University, formerly kniwn as Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku (Tokyo Imperial University,東京帝國大學).

Hu and Liao, and their families stayed in the same rented house while in Japan. They joined Tongmenhui(同盟会)together in 1905. Their only political difference is, Hu is a constitutionalists, the right wings and Liao is a socialist, the left wings. With their strong relationship from student days in Japan, it is not thinkable that Hu was the suspect of the murder. Liao was not very ambitious in politic. Dr Sun did mentioned when commented why he appointed Hu instead of Liao as acting Generalissimo, and Governor of Guangdong. Dr Sun answered if I appointed Hu, there will be no problem for Liao, but if I appointed Liao, there will be problem for Hu. Hu as close friend of Liao, must know the personality of Liao. Anyhow, Hu was appointed as acting Generalissimo by Dr Sun before his death. Hu was a powerful man in KMT(Kuomintang)at that time, the only weakness is that he has no military base, which was the important factor for leadership in KMT at that time.

But Liao is the only one among the three who had military & revolutionary experience, good in treasury management, strong in party position and with government appointment. He control the party's financial well, and was non-corrupt. A clean politician and far sighted leader. He is a strong man for any top post in politic or government , if according to western standard, but not in China. He is too simple, not ambitious, and working wholeheartedly for his country. He is firm in his political principle. After the death of Hwang Xing, he was the military adviser that Dr Sun looked for. He was the leader of the left wings. He supported Dr Sun's alliance with the communists. He has the support of the Russia and Chinese Communist Party.

Wang Jing-wei was also a close friend with Hu, since their founding of study group, Qunzhihui(群智社), studied together, going to Japan together in 1904. They met Liao in Japan. Wang also joined Tongmenhui at the same time with Hu and Liao in 1905. He was the allies of Liao in the left wings of Kuomintang(KMT). Wang, however was the classmate of Hu Han-min in Hosei University, the 2nd batch, graduated together in June 1906. To provide the clue on how close is the relationship between Hu and Wang, when Wang was imprisoned by Manchu for attempt murder of 2nd Prince Chun, Hu was worried and cried after received the news while in Penang. He tried very hard to raise fund to help Wang to escape from prison. Wang become Chairman of Nationalist Government, Nanjing on 1-7-1925, instead of acting Generalissimo Hu Han-min. It was reported that this was the source of rivalry between Wang and Hu. Wang also become the chairman of Central Political Council, the other members being Liao Zhong-kai and Xu Chong-zhi(許崇智, 1887-1965). Wang was not politically ambitious initially, he left immediately after release from the prison, to further study in France with his new wife, Chen Bijun(陈璧君), not going after any official position. He was a disciplined man, a non-drinker, not a womanizer, nor a gambler. He has no followers, too clean to be liked by fellow politician. His frequent changes in political stance, amazed many, may be he had personal agenda unknown to others. Ironically, Wang was also one of the target of the assassination.

Liao, Wang and Hu known each other since university days in Japan, joined Tongmenhui together. They went through the toughest times of revolution together, following closely with Dr Sun. There is not possible that any one of them to be a killer of Liao, despite some political difference. Hu , Wang and Chiang were all the member of the powerful KMT Central Executive Committee(CEC). They were the most influential at the time. But after Dr Sun's death, Liao was murdered, the remaining two was split politically, Wang later become traitor, Han faded away. Chiang becomes stronger and ultimately the most powerful man in KMT or Kuomintang.

Another suspect was Hu Yisheng(胡毅生, 1883-1957), paternal cousin of Hu Han-min, who was member of the Western Hill fraction of KMT, a right wings, who gather at the temple at Western Hill, Beijing after Dr Sun's death. With the pretend of praying for Dr Sun, but actually having political gathering in the temple, discussed issues, including their rivalry with Liao Zhongkai, the leader of left wings. Hu Han-min known about the gathering, but did not take any action to stop it. Both Han brothers were the main suspect. Hu Yisheng escaped to Hong Kong. Hu Yisheng also know Liao since university days in Japan, together with Wang Jingwei, Hu Han-min, Liao Zhongkai, they went to Japan in 1904, joined Tongmenghui in 1905. Hu Yisheng was the introducer for them. Hu Yisheng contested for mayor of Guangzhou in August 1925, but because of corruption case, he did not attain his ambition and Liao was then the financial minister, that may be the source of conflict between them. But it was reported by the killer that Hu Yisheng paid for the murder, with their long relationship, can Hu Yisheng willing to risk his party reputation and governmnet position to do it? Can it be fabricated story by the killer and the master mind?. The incident of the murder effectively erased the power base of Hu Han-min and Western Hill fraction in KMT. Ironically, Hu Yisheng was later appointed in senior position in the government after the Pacific war.

Liao, Wang and both Hu brothers, known each other since university days. They have been together during revolution days. There is not possible any of them to be a killer of Liao. They may have conflicts, just like in their student days, but not to the extent of taking each others life. The case was not followed closely by the police, and it was hang there historically even until today, nobody know the true story behind the murder.

When soldiers from Whampoa led by Wang and Chiang visited Hu's house, Hu had already escaped and went to hide in Wang's house. Wang and his wife, family friend of Hu, were trying to protect him. He also went to Chiang's house and was arrested and imprisoned in Whampoa Academy, where General Chiang was the principal, Liao was also the party representative in Whampoa, and Hu was the political instructor. On 23-9-1925, Hu was released and went to Russia for official tour. Hu had lost his political power, but still maintain his political influence as senior revolutionary member of KMT. The official tour was actually an act of political exile oversea.

The case was then closed after Hu exiled to Russia. Some of the suspects were captured and later released, some even appointed into the government position by Chiang (e.g. Lin Zi Mian(林直勉, 1888-1934) and Liang Hongkai(梁鸿楷). Guo Minqing(郭敏卿), son in law of Zhu Zhuowen(朱卓文, 1875-1935) who escaped to Hong Kong, the owner of the gun used by killer was executed. Liang Bo(梁博), the joint killer faced with death sentence, and was executed in August. Why the case was closed, and the master mind was not convicted, who was the actual person behind the murder?...the killer disclosed that the man from Hong Kong pay for the murder(香港给胡毅生、魏邦平几十万元打‘猛子’(‘猛子’系广东方言,指有名望、有权势的大人物),给两百万元打共产党”), who was the master mind from Hong Kong?.....

The only person who benefited from the death of Liao Zhongkai was General Chiang Kai-seh. He was the most ambitious man in KMT as junior member. The incident eliminated Liao and Hu in the path of the more junior General Chiang to leadership of KMT. Many KMT right-wing leaders were demoted like Lin Sen and Dai Jitao. This effectively made Chiang the second most powerful person in the KMT after Wang Jingwei. On 20-8-1925, General Chiang Kai-sheh become the Commander in Chief of National Revolutionary Army. Chiang took over General Xu Chongzhi's role as commander of the KMT's military since Xu was suspected of either taking part of the assassination, knowing about it, or was simply incompetent in providing security. The history of China after Dr Sun's death was in fact the history of political rivalry of Chiang and Wang. Wang was the only challenger remained in his path to the top post in KMT and China. Chiang Kai-shek eventually ousted Wang Jingwei following(using)the Zhongshan Warship Incident in the spring of 1926. For the first time in 1926, Chiang become the Central Executive Committee(CEC). He also took over the chairmanship of Central Military Council from Wang Jing-wei. After the Nationalists' successful Northern Expedition, Chiang had consolidated his position, as dictator of KMT, he become powerful both in the KMT party and in military.

Chiang also had past history of murdering Tao Chengzhang(陶成章)in 1912. He was educated in Japan military school and served in Japan Imperial Army. Member of secret society, and God brother of Chen Qimei(陈其美, 1878-1916), the uncle of Chen Guofu and Chen Lifu(CC clique), who introduced him to Tongmenhui. Chen was the Godfather of the underground secret societies, Green Gang(青幫) in Shanghai. Chen Qimei was the one who instructed Chiang to murder Tao Chengzhang, who had personal conflict with Dr Sun Yat-sen. Chen was later murdered in 1916. His family, Chen family was one of the big 4 family(Soong, Kung, Chen, Chiang) which has strong political influence in China at that time, their CC clique was the strong supporter of General Chiang Kai-seh.

One of the close follower of Chiang was Dai Li(戴笠, 1897-1946), as the Chief of the Kuomintang (KMT) Army secret service in China, Dai Li helped to develop China's modern intelligence organization in 1928. He was a gambler until he met Criminal Boss of Shanghai, Du Yuesheng(杜月笙,1888-1951), head of the Green Gang(青帮). It was through Du, that Dai Li met Chiang Kai-seh. Dai enlisted in the 1st Student Regiment of the sixth class of The Nationalist Party of Chinese Army Officer Academy, also commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy. Chiang soon made him a student informant within the academy to spy on Communist activities where he played an instrumental role in the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Dai later becomes the boss of The Bureau of Investigation and Statistics or BIS(军统),the intelligence agency of the Republic of China (1938-1946). The most fear government organization by the politician, which was strongly under Chiang's disposal. The BIS secret police was distributed amongst the Kuomintang's military, police, administration, and transportation agencies, as well as embassies and consulates abroad. It specialized in surveillance, kidnapping, assassinations, and other means of arrest. Imagine what will happen to Chiang's political rivals.....Dai was also the head of the Blue Shirts Society, a fascist organization that did security and intelligence work for Chiang.

I was also pondering why the modus operandi was so similar to the Japanese political situation where many social reformists and leftist politician were murdered? ......remember Black Dragon Society and their spies in China were doing their homework at the time for the future invasion by Japanese Imperial Army all over the cities of China.....also remember many of the revolutionists and senior KMT members were students from Japan, having close relationship with Japanese politician and secret societies. Chiang had been a student in Japanese military academy and served in Japanese Imperial Army(just like Lee Teng Hui, former President of Taiwan). Is Chiang also a member of Green Gang, a powerful underground crime secret society? Du Yuesheng(杜月笙), Chen Qimei(陈其美),Dai Li(戴笠) and Chiang Kai-seh, you see the connections? Is there any connection between Green Gang and Japanese Black Dragon Society? ......and how many revolutionist had been killed by them?....

Chiang was initially a leftist, but later changed to right wings when he had consolidated his power base, and becomes very anti-communists. He make use of Liao and Wang and their relationship with Russia. Who give him the support when he start cleaning KMT of its communist or leftist members. Is that any foreign support for Chiang, who was so daring to challenge Russia?...The strange thing in the murder of Liao Zhongkai was that, Chiang was also one of the target, is it the true or just rumor issued by interested party?.....

Chiang becomes the most powerful man with his military base from Whampoa, the 4 families' support(Soong, Chen, Kong and Chiang) and the CC clique. He make use of money and position to buy political support. He will do anything to achieve what he want, even to the extent of killing. He was also the greatest actor in the political drama to fabricate untrue story and create events(should be plays) to meet his personal political agenda. If there is Oscar award for political drama, he should has won the trophy.....he make history, change history, fabricate history and hide history....

Who murder Liao Zhongkai?.....

You should follow and know the Chinese history after the death of Liao Zhongkai. One after one of the Wang Jing-wei(in Hanoi) and Hu Han-min(in Singapore)were facing attempt murder on their life, they were played around by Chiang, resulted in internal conflict of KMT. Wang was seriously injured and joined the puppet government of Japanese supported government in Nanjing. Now some historian suspect there may be some untold story about Wang Jing-wei, his about turn in political stance puzzled many. Hu Han-min was exiled in Hong Kong and slowly faded away from politic. It was also reported that he may have been murdered. Chiang as smart strategist and opportunist, slowly gaining his power base, aided by his military background, and their supporters, especially from Chen family. He becomes the strong man of modern China, a dictator, not liked by people from mainland China and Taiwan. But through his wife Soong Mei Ling, he was the close allies of USA, even he personally dislike them, strongly support his regime in Taiwan during the cold war.

But who was the strong supporter behind General Chiang?......he even come to the stance of refuse resistance when Japan invaded China. General Chiang Kai Seh was also the one who make the way for General Okamura(冈村宁次) to escape from war criminal charges for his crime in China. After the war, General Okamura was convicted for war crimes in July 1948 by the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal but was immediately protected by the personal order of Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek, who retained him as a military advisor for the Kuomintang (KMT) government (wikipedia). General He Yingqin(何应钦)was a close ally of General Chiang and close friend and classmate of General Okamura at Imperial Japanese Army Academy(陆军士官学校). As chairman of the Beijing Military Committee, which was the supreme organ in charge of the military forces of Northern China. He advocated no direct confrontation with the Japanese troops, and signed the Tanggu Cease-Fire Accord with Okamura Yasuji (岡村寧次), who was deputy chief of staff of Kantogun at that time. After that, General He Yingqin opposed campaigns and efforts against the Japanese, and disarmed Feng Yuxiang's anti-Japanese army. In August 1945, when Japan announced its unconditional surrender, He was appointed as representative of both the Chinese Government and the Southeast Asia Ally Forces to host the surrender of Japanese troops in China. On Sept 9th, He accepted the statement of surrender submitted by General Yasuji Okamura, who was General Commander of Japanese troops in China at that time. This historic moment put He under the spotlight of the world, and was the peak of his career. At that time, General Chiang and General He had negotiated favorable terms of surrender for General Okamura, their close friends. The start of evil plan for a civil war with Chinese Communist Party even before even signing of the surrender document. General Okamura, General He, General Chiang known each other when in Japan. Who is behind General Chiang?....the strong stance to go against Russia and communists?.....General Chiang will do anything to achieve his personal goal, is the military plan of Japanese militarism provide a perfect strategic match for his personal agenda? General Okamura was the one considered as the man behind Japanese militarism. Is there any connection between this relationship?

Will Chiang's diary disclose the true fact? as a smart and cunning man, he will not disclose any negative factor in his life.....

You should now find the missing puzzle, who was the murderer, without even the help from KMT police, whose chief happen at that time was a right wing supporter, who eagerly close the file. But in law, there is such evidence known as Circumstantial evidence.....that will provide the clue for the puzzle....

No comments:

Post a Comment