Thursday, October 28, 2010

Life of Malaysian Chinese

This is a simple story of Malaysian Chinese; the story is common to every Chinese family in Malaysia. Their life is not easy, but they are able to overcome all the difficulties to built a good life for the family members and their future.....

The story still go on....

Monday, October 25, 2010

The Senkaku Islands - 钓鱼台群岛 or 尖閣諸島?

The Senkaku Islands (尖閣諸島), also known as the Diaoyu Islands or Diaoyutai Islands (钓鱼台群岛;釣魚台群島) or the Pinnacle Islands, are a group of disputed uninhabited islands in the East China Sea. They are located roughly northeast of Taiwan, due west of Okinawa, and due north of the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands.

Japan controlled these islands from 1895 until her surrender at the end of World War II. The United States administered them as part of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands from 1945 until 1972, when they were reverted to Japan. Since 1971, they have been claimed by both the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the People's Republic of China. China has claimed discovery and administration between 16th century or earlier until 1895.

The islands are a major issue in foreign relations between Japan and the PRC and between Japan and the ROC. Despite the complexity of relations between the two states, both the governments of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and People's Republic of China agree that the islands are part of Taiwan as part of Toucheng Township in Yilan County. The Japanese government regards these islands as a part of Ishigaki, Okinawa Prefecture.

(source: wikipedia)

Chinese views on Diaoyu Islands or Diaoyutai Islands (钓鱼台群岛)

The first recorded name of the islands, Diaoyu, used in books such as Voyage with a Tail Wind ( 顺风相送; 順風相送) and Record of the Imperial Envoy's Visit to Ryūkyū (使琉球录;使琉球錄) date to 1403 and 1534, respectively. Adopted by the Chinese Imperial Map of the Ming Dynasty, both the Chinese name for the island group (Diaoyu) and the Japanese name for the main island (Uotsuri) both literally mean "angling".

According to China, Chinese historical records detailing the discovery and geographical feature of these islands date back to the year 1403. For several centuries they have been administered as part of Taiwan and have always been used exclusively by Chinese fishermen as an operational base. In 1874, Japan took Liu Chiu Islands from China by force. Diaoyutai, however, remained under the administration Taiwan, a part of China. Taiwan (including Diaoyutai) was ceded to Japan in 1895 after the first Sino-Japanese War. Originally, during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan, the Diaoyutai Archipelago came under the jurisdiction of Taipei Prefecture. After the close of the Second World War, when U.S. troops were stationed on the Ryukyu and Diaoyutai Archipelagoes, the KMT government which had received Taiwan did not immediately demand that that the US give them sovereignty. Diaoyutai was returned to China at the end of World War II in 1945 based upon the 1943 agreement of the Big Three in Cairo. Diaoyutai was part of Taiwan hence was included in that package.

China argues that Okinotorishima island, the southernmost island in the Japanese archipelago, is merely a rock, not an island, in an attempt to nullify Japan's claim of an exclusive economic zone around the small island, which is under Tokyo jurisdiction. The Chinese said they had "differences of opinion," citing Okinotorishima and the Senkaku Islands. While Beijing acknowledges that Okinotorishima belongs to Japan, it stressed that it did not fall under the classification of an island as defined by the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, but is instead a rock, which cannot be used to designate an exclusive economic zone, as the Japanese government has done.


Japan's view on The Senkaku Islands (尖閣諸島)

In the 1880’s, Japan conducted surveys of the Senkaku Islands and determined that they were uninhabited and officially claimed by no nation. They were formally annexed in 1895. The above photo shows a small katsuobushi factory that was built on on one of the islands and used from 1895 to 1940. During that period, a small number of Japanese lived and worked in the Senkakus.

Japan claims the islands as official Japanese territory in 1895. From 1885 on, surveys of the Senkaku Islands had been thoroughly made by the Government of Japan through the agencies of Okinawa Prefecture and by way of other methods. Through these surveys, it was confirmed that the Senkaku Islands had been uninhabited and showed no trace of having been under the control of China. Based on this confirmation, the Government of Japan made a Cabinet Decision on 14 January 1895 to erect a marker on the Islands to formally incorporate the Senkaku Islands into the territory of Japan. Since then, the Senkaku Islands have continuously remained as an integral part of the Nansei Shoto Islands which are the territory of Japan. These islands were neither part of Taiwan nor part of the Pescadores Islands which were ceded to Japan from the Qing Dynasty of China in accordance with Article II of the Treaty of Shimonoseki which came into effect in May of 1895. Accordingly, the Senkaku Islands are not included in the territory which Japan renounced under Article II of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. They came under US control after World War II. The United States kept that group of small islets for occasional bombing practice targets, largely for its Liu Chiu based Air Force. Japan claimed that the Diaoyutai Islands are part of Liu Chiu. The Senkaku Islands have been placed under the administration of the United States of America as part of the Nansei Shoto Islands, in accordance with Article III of the said treaty, and are included in the area, the administrative rights over which were reverted to Japan in accordance with the Agreement Between Japan and the United States of America Concerning the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands signed on 17 June 1971. The facts outlined herein clearly indicate the status of the Senkaku Islands being part of the territory of Japan. According to Japan, the fact that China expressed no objection to the status of the Islands being under the administration of the United States under Article III of the San Francisco Peace Treaty clearly indicates that China did not consider the Senkaku Islands as part of Taiwan. It was not until the latter half of 1970, when the question of the development of petroleum resources on the continental shelf of the East China Sea came to the surface, that the Government of China and Taiwan authorities began to raise questions regarding the Senkaku Islands.


In 1900, when Tsune Kuroiwa, a teacher at the Okinawa Prefecture Normal School, visited the islands, he adopted the name Senkaku Retto (尖阁列岛; 尖閣列島;), literally Pinnacle Islands, to refer the whole island group, based on the British name. The first official document recording the name Senkaku Retto was by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Nihon Gaiko Monjo (日本外交文書, Documents on Japanese Foreign Relations) in the 1950s. In Japanese, Sentō Shosho (尖頭諸嶼?) and Senkaku Shosho (尖閣諸嶼?) were translations used for these "Pinnacle Islands" by various Japanese sources. Subsequently, the entire island group (including Uotsuri Jima/Diaoyu Dao and all the others) came to be called Senkaku Rettō, which later evolved into Senkaku Shotō.

In 1920, a Chinese boat was shipwrecked in the area. They were rescued and returned to China by the Japanese. In an official letter from the Chinese government’s Nagasaki consulate thanking the Japanese, the islands are referred to as “the Senkaku Islands, Yaeyama district, Okinawa Prefecture, in the Empire of Japan.” The letter uses the official Japanese name for the islands directly states that they are Japanese territory.

A dispute on Senkakus Islands between China and Japan; what do you think? Is it Diaoyu Islands or Diaoyutai Islands(钓鱼台群岛)owned by China/Taiwan? or Senkaku Islands (尖閣諸島) owned by Japan? It was an uninhabited island, but why now there is a dispute?

In 1969, a report by the UN Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) indicated the possibility of large reserves of oil in the vicinity of the Diaoyutai Archipelago. This report set off a political dispute between Taiwan, China and Japan which has been going on now for over thirty years.

In 1969, when the Okinawa Reversion Treaty was signed between the US and Japan, it included the Diaoyutai Islands. Since then Japan insists repeatedly that the islet group is part of Japan's territory. The Senkaku Islands have been under the administrative control of the Government of Japan since, having been returned as part of the reversion of Okinawa. On April 9, 1971, the U.S. State Department issued a statement that President Nixon and Japanese Prime Minister Sato Eisaku had reached an agreement, by which the US would return Okinawa and the "South-western islands" which included the Senkaku, to Japan, in 1972.

Japan has objected to Chinese development of natural gas resources in the East China Sea in an area where the two countries Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) claims overlap. Japan claims a division of the EEZ on the median line between the countries' coastlines. About 40,000 square kilometers of EEZ are in dispute. China and Japan both claim 200 nautical miles EEZ rights, but the East China Sea width is only 360 nautical miles. China claims an EEZ extending to the eastern end of the Chinese continental shelf which goes deep into the Japanese EEZ beyond the median line.

According to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea the stipulation, should act according to the fair principle development negotiations, seeks means which both sides both can accept. When there is disagreement on the demarcation of EEZs between any countries, the law stipulates that the parties concerned should avoid anything that could undermine an eventual agreement. China's gas field drilling near the median line between the two countries is regarded by Japan as an obvious infringement of the spirit of this law. Tokyo's proposal, which has not been accepted by Beijing, has been to divide the sea equally between the two countries, which would put China's Chunxiao claim only three miles from Japanese territory. China's offers to jointly develop the oil field have been rebuffed.

The specific development in dispute is China's drilling in the Chunxiao field, which is three miles west of the median line, but which Japan contends may be tapping natural gas reserves which extend past the median line. The Chunxiao gas field in Xihu Sag in the East China Sea is estimated to hold reserves of more than 1.6 tcf of natural gas and is expected to become a major producer in the next ten years. Commercial operation was expected to begin in mid-2005 at a production rate of 70 bcf per year, rising to 282 bcf by 2010. Sinopec Star has reserves of 7 tcf of gas, 1.9 tcf of which is held in the Chunxiao area. China has proven reserves of natural gas of about 53.3 trillion cubic feet (tcf). Most of China's gas fields are in the the western and north-central parts of the country, though offshore basins are becoming increasingly important.


Another question, if The Senkaku Islands is part of Ryukyu Kingdom; did Japan has legal ownership on Ryukyu Kingdom, an independent kingdom, which was only a vassal state of both Japan and China. Is the return of Ryukyu Islands(now Okinawa) and Senkaku islands by USA, which ruled the islands as trustee or custodian for Ryukyu people or international communities after the WW2, is the return legally correct? Why Japan controlled these islands "only from 1895" until her surrender at the end of World War II, what happen before 1895?...Before 1895, Japan was not the owner of Ryukyu and Sekaku Islands?.... In 1879 Japan replaces the Ryūkyū han with Okinawa Prefecture, formally annexing the islands. King Shō Tai (尚泰?) is given the title of marquis (侯爵?) and removed to Tokyo. Before 1879, Ryukyu Islands was owned by Ryukyu Kingdom,a political independent country which was a tributary of Imperial China's Qing Dynasty.If Senkaku Islands were part of Ryukyu Kingdom, it cannot be part of Japan before 1879, otherwise the King Sho Tai of Ryukyu Kingdom cannot be imprisoned in Tokyo,Japan..... if Senkaku islands is owned by Ryukyu kingdom, it is not owned by Japan. Then historian need to check on ancient documents, did Senkaku Islands owned by Ryukyu kingdom to find the clue.....

If it is part of Taiwan, it is owned by China(either Republic of China or People Republic of China). Japan had sought to control Taiwan since 1592, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi began extending Japanese influence overseas. The Qing Dynasty was defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and Taiwan and Penghu were ceded in full sovereignty to the Empire of Japan. Inhabitants wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China. Japan ocupied Taiwan and Sekaku Islands from the victory of First Sino-Japanese War, this reflected that Taiwan and Sekaku was part of territories of Qing Dynasty, otherwise there was no necessity for Japan to sent military forces since 1592 to conquer Taiwan and Sekaku Islands......In 1616, Murayama Toan led an unsuccessful invasion of the island. Historian will tell us what is the meaning of "invasion"?

"An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all, or large parts of the armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory controlled by "another such entity", generally with the objective of either conquering, liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory, forcing the partition of a country, altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government, or a combination thereof".

Then who owned the Taiwan and Senkaku Islands, another such entity, another geopolitical entity called Qing Kingdom, or Imperial China......

The Treaty of Shimonoseki (下関条約, "Shimonoseki Jōyaku"), known as the Treaty of Maguan ( 马关条约;馬關條約) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing Empire of China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. The peace conference took place from March 20 to April 17, 1895.Japanese Soldiers Entering Taipei City in 1895 after the Treaty of Shimonoseki, and began the era of Japanese occupation of Taiwan. The Cairo Conference from 22 to 26 November 1943 in Cairo, Egypt was held to address the Allied position against Japan during World War II, and to make decisions about postwar Asia. One of the three main clauses of the Cairo Declaration was that "all the territories Japan has stolen from China, including Manchuria, Taiwan and the Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China'. On 25 October 1945, the US Navy ferried ROC troops to Taiwan in order to accept the formal surrender of Japanese military forces in Taipei (then called Taihoku). General Rikichi Andō, governor-general of Taiwan and commander-in-chief of all Japanese forces on the island, signed the instrument of surrender and handed it over to General Chen Yi of the RoC military to complete the official turnover. Chen Yi proclaimed that day to be "Retrocession Day of Taiwan".

If Senkaku Islands is part of Taiwan, it is legally owned by China(Republic of China/People Republic of China).

Can Japan be rightful owner that USA(not the owner and had no legal right to act unilaterally) need to return the islands under their trustee to them???? Did the islands include Senkaku Islands?...The United States administered them as part of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands from 1945, it was the agreement after WW2 of all victor nations, which included China, which represented the world institution or international communities. USA was only an agent or trustee or custodian. Did USA consulted with the world institution or international community on the action as she was only an agent/trustee for the principal(is it Ryukyu people or the former owner of the islands before 1895?) under the act or agreement?; where is the human right of Ryukyu people? only international law expert will provide the answer. Obviously, there is no logic.....

Some critic was argued on the wording of the surrender declaration or written order,or General Order No. 1, issued on of Sept. 2, 1945, or whatever written documents. Being an English speaking nation, when the Surrender of Japanese was taken place in 1945, whatever agreement, treaty, articles, orders or any written documents were all in English, like an experienced lawyer the wordings can be used for intended hidden political agenda of the interest party who know English well; any party not aware of the actual wordings will suffered from later legal complication, and in international law. The document must be drafted by USA within a short span of time, where there was no chance for deep study by other countries. But under the law of equity, Taiwan was part of China, it was forcefully occupied by Japan under the unfair treaty after the war, an act of military invasion of territory, as evidenced by The Treaty of Shimonoseki, rightfully the territory should be returned to the rightful owner, not to the agent or any party, whatsoever was written or silence in the surrender agreement or treaty.....If Senkaku Islands is part of Taiwan, it is part of China. It is a undeniable historical fact.

The worst argument is some claimed that Taiwan's "territorial sovereignty is held by the US Military Government" because the US, as Japan's "conqueror" in World War II, was the "principal occupying power" of Taiwan. That may be the ultimate hidden agenda of some party.....Based on this argument, Senkaku Islands is USA's post war territory?.... what a joke...

The ultimate reason, of course is because of oil discovery, and the territories of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).....otherwise an win-win agreement can easily reached by both parties for a deserted islets.

Finally, historically who was having past records of aggressors, occupiers and frequently having wars to acquire other geopolitical entity until WW2, and specifically so for land far from the home ....not only neighboring countries. There was a strategic war plan to expand their territories. Ironically, Japan is also having territory dispute with Korea(The Liancourt Rocks, called Dokdo), Russia(The Kuril Islands dispute),not only China and Taiwan.

The issue is further complicated by the involvement of outside party. What is USA to do with the dispute, a country far away?......there is a military pact with Japan, a country far from her interest party who return Ryukyu Islands to Japan, the country which is still having air force base at Okinawa...USA is far from Japan and China, what is the role she played in the dispute, historically and politically after WW2 and during the cold war?....????....Are we still in the cold war era?...that is still the perception of the USA. The current domestic political situation in the USA will further activate the foreign policy and military strategy of the US in East Asia, and Senkaku Islands issue. Ironically, the issue of Taiwan would have been settled as domestic affairs like Germany, Vietnam; if there is no external party involvement during the cold war and even today. The new cold war era may have developed by USA as their perception strategy....

Senkaku Island issue is not a simple territorial issue, it involves history, economy, politic, militarism, armament industry, petrol money, global military and political power, and image of a nation.

Sunday, October 24, 2010

Where is Ryukyu Kingdom(琉球国)?

In ancient time,between China and Japan, there was a country called Ryukyu Kingdom. What happen to Ryukyu Kingdom today, we no longer hear the name of this kingdom in modern world. The kingdom had disappeared from the earth, without anyone really concern about it. This make me remember all the small nations or kingdoms, which had been lost and occupied by stronger neighboring countries. It is just like the history of East Timor, where nobody was concern in the day the small country was occupied by their neighboring country, because it was a small country, with no political interest to the world....

Today Ryukyu Kingdom has disappeared, their citizen had become the citizen of another nation. The younger generation of the people of Ryukyu Kingdom, may have brainwashed to accept the dominion over their motherland. This was a sad chapter of the world history. Another vassal state of Japan, Korea was able to become an independent nation, but not Ryukyu Kingdom. Unlike the other small states in the world, like East Timor, Nagaland, the people of Ryukyu quietly accepted their fate. That was the end of the Ryukyu Kingdom, the sound become silence, the past of the kingdom only restricted to Tourism history....

In Okinawa, Japan and for many Okinawan descendants living abroad, the term “uchinanchu” refers to any person of Okinawan ancestry, there is a small voices still calling, Ryukyu people.....

Map of Ryukyu Kingdom(today Okinawa Prefecture of Japan)

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Ryūkyū Kingdom

The Ryūkyū Kingdom (琉球國 Rūchū kuku or Lewchew, or Luchu) was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th century to the 19th century. The Kings of Ryūkyū unified Okinawa Island and extended the kingdom to the Amami Islands in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture, and the Sakishima Islands near Taiwan. Despite its small size, the kingdom played a central role in the maritime trade networks of medieval East and Southeast Asia.

In the 14th century, small domains scattered on Okinawa Island were unified into three principalities: Hokuzan (北山, Northern Mountain), Chūzan (中山, Central Mountain) and Nanzan (南山, Southern Mountain). This was known as the Three Kingdoms or Sanzan (三山, Three Mountains) period. Hokuzan, which constituted much of the northern half of the island, was the largest in terms of land area, and strong militarily, but was economically the weakest of the three. Nanzan comprised the southern portion of the island. Chūzan lay in the center of the island, and was the strongest economically. Its political capital at Shuri, neighbored the major trade port of Naha and center of traditional Chinese learning, Kumemura. These sites, and Chūzan as a whole, would continue to form the center of the Ryūkyū Kingdom until its abolition by Japan.

Once the independent kingdom of Ryūkyū (琉球), which was a tributary state of imperial China, the islands were first invaded and brought under the control of Satsuma (modern-day Kagoshima) in 1609, who continued to use them as a conduit for trade with China, to the profit of all three parties

The first mention of the word Ryukyu was written in the Book of Sui. This Ryukyu might refer to Taiwan, not the Ryukyu islands.[citation needed] Okinawa was the Japanese word depicting the islands, first seen in the biography of Jianzhen, written in 779. Agricultural societies begun in the 8th century slowly developed until the 12th century. Since the islands are located in the center of the East China Sea relatively close to Japan, China and South-East Asia, the Ryūkyū Kingdom became a prosperous trading nation. Also during this period, many Gusukus, similar to castles, were constructed. The Ryūkyū Kingdom had a tributary relationship with the Chinese Empire beginning in the 15th century.

In 1609 the Satsuma clan, which controlled the region that is now Kagoshima Prefecture, invaded the Ryūkyū Kingdom. The Ryūkyū Kingdom was obliged to agree to form a tributary relationship with the Satsuma and the Tokugawa shogunate, while maintaining its previous tributary relationship with China; Ryukyuan sovereignty was maintained since complete annexation would have created a conflict with China. The Satsuma clan earned considerable profits from trades with China during a period in which foreign trade was heavily restricted by the shogunate.

Though Satsuma maintained strong influence over the islands, the Ryūkyū Kingdom maintained a considerable degree of domestic political freedom for over two hundred years. Four years after the 1868 Meiji Restoration, the Japanese government, through military incursions, officially annexed the kingdom and renamed it Ryukyu han. At the time, the Qing Dynasty of China asserted sovereignty over the islands of the Ryūkyū Kingdom, since the Ryūkyū Kingdom was also a tributary nation of China.

Ryukyu han became Okinawa Prefecture of Japan in 1879, even though all other hans had become prefectures of Japan in 1872. In 1912, Okinawans first obtained the right to vote to send representatives to the national Diet which had been established in 1890.

The timeline of lost kingdom- Ryukyu Kingdom

1372 - The first Ming dynasty envoy visits Okinawa, which had been divided into three kingdoms, during the Sanzan period. Formal tributary relations with the Chinese Empire begin.
1416 - Chūzan, led by Shō Hashi, occupies Nakijin gusuku, capital of Hokuzan.
1429 - Chūzan occupies Shimajiri Osato gusuku, capital of Nanzan, unifying Okinawa Island. Shō Hashi establishes the Kingdom of Ryūkyū, ruling as king with his capital at Shuri (now part of modern-day Naha).
1470 - Shō En (Kanemaru) establishes the Second Shō Dynasty.
1477 - The third king, Shō Shin, ascends to the throne. Golden age of the kingdom.
1609 (April 5)- daimyō (Lord) of Satsuma in southern Kyūshū conquers the kingdom. King of Ryūkyū becomes a Japanese vassal.
1624 - Lord of Satsuma annexes the Amami Islands.
1846 - Dr. Bernard Jean Bettelheim (d. 1870), a British Protestant missionary, arrives in Ryūkyū Kingdom. He establishes the first foreign hospital on the island at the Naminoue Gokoku-ji Temple.
1853 - Commodore Matthew Perry of the US Navy visits the kingdom. Betteleheim leaves with Perry.
1866 - The last official mission from the Qing Empire visits the kingdom.
1872 - The Japanese government unilaterally abolished the Ryukyu Kingdom, and declared the islands to be the Ryukyu Han (Ryukyu fief), with Shō Tai (尚泰) as the head of the fief 藩王 (Han'ō).
1874 - The last tributary envoy to China is dispatched from Naha.
1879 - Japan replaces the Ryūkyū han with Okinawa Prefecture, formally annexing the islands. King Shō Tai (尚泰) is given the title of marquis (侯爵) and removed to Tokyo for easy control by Japan.

Following the Battle of Okinawa and the end of World War II in 1945, Okinawa was under United States administration for 27 years. During the trusteeship rule the United States Air Force established numerous military bases on the Ryukyu islands. During the Korean War, B-29 Superfortresses flew bombing missions from Kadena AFB over Korea and China.

In 1972, the U.S. government returned the islands to Japanese administration. Under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, the United States Forces Japan (USFJ) have maintained a large military presence. 27,000 personnel, including 15,000 Marines, contingents from the Navy, Army and Air Force, and their 22,000 family members are stationed in Okinawa. Since 1960, the U.S. and Japan have maintained an agreement that allows the U.S. to secretly bring nuclear weapons into Japan. Both tactical and strategic weapons have been maintained in Okinawa. 18% of the main island was occupied by U.S. military bases and 75% of all USFJ bases are located in Okinawa prefecture.

Despite strong appeals for some form of Okinawan independence, Japanese government officials ignored this perspective, and negotiated with the United States around the reversion of Okinawa to Japan. Despite popular rioting and protests around the issue of reversion in both Okinawa and mainland Japan, with many people arguing against a position of reversion, the leadership of Japan worked out a reversion agreement with the United States that placed Okinawa back under the control of Japan, but maintained the U.S. military forces on the islands. On June 17, 1971, the Japanese government signed the treaty with the United States that authorized the reversion of Okinawa to Japan. In protest, over 100,000 people marched and rallied throughout Japan, in dissatisfaction with the Reversion. Many protesters resorted to violent tactics in protest, and in November 1971 over 300 people were arrested in the Hibiya district in Tokyo, in the riots and protests that followed. Despite these protests, however, the Japanese National Diet eventually ratified the Reversion treaty on November 24, 1971. Despite the Reversion, however, the issues that provided the main impetus for the Reversion - mainly, the U. S. military bases, and the problems that they caused - still remain. (source:

I wonder was there consent from international community and from stake holders like China or Taiwan, prior to returning Ryukyu to Japan? USA was not the owner of the islands, but only a custodian or trustee of the islands after WW2, did USA has the capacity or authority to unilaterally act in the way? or did USA did it as political agenda of cold war to protect her interest in the region? I hope international law academician will do a research on it. But from the later political development in the region, it was clear that a strategic move by USA was for her political and military interest in the region. Where is the legal right and human right of the Ryukyu people, at least their views should be taken into consideration for the decision to return the Ryukyu islands to Japan. At least International Court or world bodies like United Nation may be consulted for the proper action to be taken, not unilateral action. This left a political time bomb in the region, where USA can play a role in future. A smart political move by USA to circle China, their perceptive enemy in cold war, and rival in global economy......

Ryūkyū independence movement

The nihongo|Ryūkyū independence movement|琉球独立運動|Ryūkyū Dokuritsu Undō is a movement for the independence of Okinawa and the surrounding islands (Ryukyu Islands), from Japan. The movement re-merged in 1945, after the end of the Pacific War. Some Ryukyuan people felt, as the Allied Occupation began, that the Ryukyus (Okinawa) should eventually become an independent state, instead of being returned to Japan. The majority pushed for unification with the mainland, hoping that this would hasten the end of the Allied Occupation there. The US-Japan Security Treaty was signed in 1951 as re-unification occurred, and providing for the continuation of the American military presence. This set the stage for renewed political movement for Ryukyu independence.

Historical context

The Ryūkyū Kingdom was conquered by the Japanese feudal domain of Satsuma in 1609, and held as a semi-independent state until it was formally annexed and transformed into Okinawa Prefecture in 1879. It is likely that there were various proponents of independence from Satsuma/Japan during this period, and from China as well, to which Ryūkyū was a tributary state. However, no significant popular movement arose during this time.

Similarly, there may have been significant movements for Okinawan independence following its annexation, in the period prior to and during World War II. Following the war, the United States Occupation government took over control of Okinawa, retaining control until 1972, twenty years after the formal occupation of the rest of Japan had ended. There was pressure in 1945, immediately following the war, for the creation of a fully independent Ryūkyūan state, while later in the Occupation period there arose a strong movement not for independence but for a return to Japanese sovereignty.

Since 1972, and the return of Okinawa to Japanese control, voices turned once again towards the aim of a fully independent Ryūkyūan state.

Motives & Ideology

Among those who sought a return to Japanese sovereignty, there was a basic belief that the people of Okinawa were a part of the Japanese people, whether ethnically, culturally, or politically. During the Meiji period, when the Ryūkyū Kingdom was formally abolished and annexed, there was a strong push for assimilation; the Meiji government, and other cultural and intellectual agents, sought to make the people of the new prefecture see themselves as "Japanese." Ryūkūans were given Japanese citizenship, names, passports, and other official representations of their status as part of the Japanese people. They were also incorporated into the newly-founded national public education system. Through this education system and other methods, both governmental and independent, Ryukuans, along with minorities from all parts of the country, were gradually integrated into the Japanese people. There was a significant reimagining of the histories of Ryūkyū and of Hokkaidō, which was annexed at the same time, and an insistence that the Ainu of Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyūan people were "Japanese", ethnically and culturally, going back many centuries, despite originally having significantly different cultures. With time these reimagined identities took hold in the younger generations. They were born in Okinawa Prefecture, as Japanese citizens, and saw themselves as belonging there.

This does not mean that the independent identities have been completely lost. Many Ryukyuan people see themselves as a separate Ryukyuan race, ethnically different, with a unique and separate cultural heritage. They see a great difference between themselves and the "mainland" Japanese, and many feel a strong connection to Ryukyuan traditional culture and the pre-1609 history of independence. There is strong criticism of the Meiji government's assimilation policies and ideological agenda.
(source: wikipedia)

Ryukyuan languages which are incomprehensible to Japanese speakers. Ryukyuan languages as different languages from Japanese. Okinawa also has its own religious beliefs, generally characterized by ancestor worship and the respecting of relationships between the living, the dead, and the gods and spirits of the natural world.

Recent events

Though there are pressures in the US and Japan, as well as in Okinawa, for the removal of US troops and military bases from Okinawa, there have thus far been only partial and gradual movements in that direction.

In 1995, a decision to remove troops from Okinawa was reversed, and there was a renewed surge in the Ryukyu Independence Movement. In 2005,Chinese Lim John Chuan-tiong (林泉忠) , a University of Ryukyu associate professor executed a telephone poll of Okinawans over 18. He obtained useful replies from 1029 people. Asked whether they considered themselves Okinawan (沖縄人), Japanese (日本人), or both, the answers were 40.6, 21.3, and 36.5 respectively. When asked whether Okinawa should become independent if the Japanese government allowed (or did not allow) Okinawa to freely decide its future, 24.9% replied Okinawa should become independent with permission, and 20.5% in case of no permission from the Japanese government. Those who believed Okinawa should not declare independence were 58.7% and 57.4% respectively. [ [ Okinawa Times, January 1, 2006. The scan is from the Okinawa Independent Party website.] ] [ [ "Survey on Okinawan resident identities", From the Latest Questionnaires] ]

Kariyushi Club (かりゆしクラブ, Kariyushi Kurabu), formerly called Ryūkyū Independent Party (琉球独立党, Ryūkyū Dokuritsutō), is the local party in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, seeking an independent Ryukyu, the Republic of Ryukyu (琉球共和国, Ryūkyū Kyōwakoku). The current party leader is Chōsuke Yara (屋良朝助, Yara Chōsuke). Kariyushi is Okinawan for "happy" or "harmony with nature".

Okinawans are "Uchinanchu."..... are Ryukyu people....

In global politic, a small nation suffered....Ryukyu Kingdom is less important than The Senkaku Islands ; Qing emperor has no time for them as they are having their own internal problem, despite the Ryukyu king repeatedly asking for help. The USA never look at them, when Commodore Matthew Perry visited them. Only Japan see the potential in the kingdom, and annexed Ryukyu Kingdom into their empire, without anyone paying attention to the tiny small Ryukyu Kingdom. Ryukyu Kingdom has no strategic importance to the world, but strategic and military importance to Japanese military expansion plan..... The Ryukyuan or Lewchewan people(琉球民族, Ryūkyū minzoku),the indigenous peoples of the Ryukyu Islands become Japanese. That is the end of Ryukyu Kingdom.... .......

Related articles

1.Ryūkyū Kingdom,
2.Early History of The Ryukyu Kingdom and its Relationship with China and Japan,
3. Welcome to Ryukyu Kingdom,
4. Kariyushi Club official website, Japanese)
5. Kariyushi Club,
6. Ryūkyū independence movement,
7. Okinawa Peace Network of Los Angeles, featuring information about Ryukyuan culture worldwide;
8. Worldwide Uchinanchu Network,
9. Okinawan diaspora(2002), by Ronald Y. Nakasone, University of Hawaii Press.

Thursday, October 21, 2010

The Old Summer Palace(圓明園)

We went out, and, after pillaging it, burned the whole place, destroying in a vandal-like manner most valuable property which [could] not be replaced for four millions. We got upward of £48 apiece prize money...I have done well. The [local] people are very civil, but I think the grandees hate us, as they must after what we did the Palace. You can scarcely imagine the beauty and magnificence of the places we burnt. It made one’s heart sore to burn them; in fact, these places were so large, and we were so pressed for time, that we could not plunder them carefully. Quantities of gold ornaments were burnt, considered as brass. It was wretchedly demoralizing work for an army.

—Charles George Gordon, a 27-year-old captain in the Royal Engineers

The old Summer Palace or Yuanmingyuan(圓明園)was an extremely large complex of palaces and gardens 8 km (5 miles) northwest of the old city wall of Beijing (that is, 8km from XiZhiMen subway). It was also called Imperial Garden(御园). Yuanmingyuan in Chinese mean the bright round garden, yuan(圓) means round, circle, complete or reunion, ming(明)means bright,clear and yuan(園) means garden. It was built in the 18th and early 19th century. It was at Yuanmingyuan that the emperors of the Qing Dynasty resided and handled government affairs, the Forbidden City was used only for formal ceremonies at that time. It was the apex of Qing's imperial government.

Note: Ironically, Ming was the name of Ming Dynasty(明朝),yuan- ming(圓明) may have meaning of reunion with the Ming dynasty, the dynasty that Qing overthrown? a return from Qing rule to Ming rule?. Ming Dynasty was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Hans, and Manchu overthrown the Ming Dynasty to establish Qing Dynasty(清朝)...what a coincident?....I wonder who named the garden?....the hidden political meaning that Qing emperor did not realized?...may be that was the omen for the downfall of Qing dynasty. After the opium wars, the Qing kingdom had been weaken, and the destruction of the Yuanmingyuan provided the hint that the kingdom had no longer able to defend the country from the foreigners. The building of the Yuanmingyuan also had utilized much financial resources of the imperial China, and with the large import of opium, the financial position had declined. The building of Yuanmingyuan was a burden to the Chinese people. The desire for the downfall of Qing kingdom had surfaced.

In 1860, during the Second Opium War, British and French expeditionary forces, having marched inland from the coast, reached Beijing (then known as Peking). On the night of October 6 French units diverted from the main attack force towards the Old Summer Palace, extensive looting, took place...

On October 18, 1860, the British High Commissioner to China Lord Elgin, in retaliation for the torture and execution of almost twenty European and Indian prisoners (including two British envoys and a journalist for The Times), ordered the destruction of the palace....

In the history of China, two historical events were the most humiliating to them, first the Japanese War during the World War 2 and Sino-Japanese Wars, the next was the Opium Wars 1839-1860(or Anglo-Chinese Wars), where the Old Summer Palace was destroyed and the unfair treaty ports and Hong Kong was ceded to Britain and other countries including Japan. That was the time, the humiliation of China during the Opium Wars, the Chinese failed to understand the West, at the time when there were sign of adopting and adapting to some western ideals and sciences,the act of the west had destroyed all the good things that they had on the western civilization. The human right that the west talk so much; the religion that the Christian missionaries talk so much; the perception and respect go down deep to the floor...... until today. The Chinese just cannot understand the western type of human right. The China as a nation. was tormented, and had suffered mentally and psychologically until recently when they are able to stand up economically. But politically, the issue of Taiwan(Friction between China and Japan arose from Japan's control over the Ryukyu Islands from 1870, annexation of Taiwan after the First Sino-Japanese war of 1894. China was almost forced to cede more territory in Manchuria but was saved by Russian intervention. Despite this, China still paid a huge indemnity and relinquished Taiwan), China-Japan relationship, the issue of Senkaku Islands(尖閣諸島) which rightfully should be Diaoyu Islands or Diaoyutai Islands(釣魚台群島); are the leftover from the Opium Wars era. Few Chinese are able to understand human right and democracy promoted by the west, and strongly criticized China on their records; but forgot the historical event of Yuanmingyuan done by them, that destroy the confidence of Chinese on the western type of human right and democracy. The historical scar is too hurting to Chinese...

The Chinese government decided to keep the The Old Summer Palace or Yuanmingyuan ruined site as is to teach future generations about the consequences of being dominated by foreign powers.

Victor Hugo, disapproved of the action; in his "Expédition de Chine", Hugo described the looting as, "'Two robbers breaking into a museum, devastating, looting and burning, leaving laughing hand-in-hand with their bags full of treasures; one of the robbers is called France and the other Britain." In his letter Hugo hoped that one day France would feel guilty and return what it had plundered from China. Victor Hugo had spoken out from the heart of a person who understand the real meaning of human right..... so legally a daylight robbery had taken place....

To this day many relics which were taken from the gardens remain in foreign museums and private collections. Although the Chinese government has tried to recover them, only a few statuettes from The Eternal Spring garden of the Yongzheng Emperor(雍正帝)have actually been returned; these are displayed in the Beijing National Museum. It is high time the historical relics be returned to China, the countries which believed in human right and legal right should not keep anything that was unlawfully taken. Some of the owner of the historical relics are the world famous museums.

Will the West make things right and heel the wounds....

1. Official website of Yuanmingyuan;
2. Senkaku Islands(钓鱼台群岛),
3. People's Republic of China – Japan relations;
4. 圓明園,圓明園
5. Old Summer Palace,

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Three Rivers Running Parallel (三江并流)

The Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Yunnan province, China. It lies within the watershed areas of the upper reaches of the Yangtze (Jinsha,金沙江), Mekong (Lancang, 澜沧江) and Salween (Nujiang, 怒江) rivers, in the Yunnanese section of the Hengduan Mountains(横断山脉).

The protected areas extend over 15 core areas, totaling 939,441.4 ha, and buffer areas, totaling 758,977.8 ha across a region of 180 km by 310 km. Here, for a distance of over 300 km, three of Asia's great rivers run roughly parallel to one another though separated by high mountain ranges with peaks over 6,000 meters. After this area of near confluence, the rivers greatly diverge: the Nujiang(怒江) empties out at Moulmein, Burma, in to the Indian Ocean, the Mekong south of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, in to the South China Sea and the Yangtse flows in to the East China Sea at Shanghai. Selected nature reserves and places of scenic beauty in this unique region were collectively awarded World Heritage Site status in 2003 for their very rich biodiversity and outstanding topographical diversity.

In its description, UNESCO mentions: "(It) may be the most biologically diverse temperate region on earth" and "An exceptional range of topographical features - from gorges to karst to glaciated peaks -- is associated with the site being at a 'collision point' of tectonic plates".

Due to its topography and geographical location, the Three Parallel Rivers region contains many climate types. Average annual precipitation ranges from 4,600mm in the Dulongjian area in the west of Gongshan county(贡山县) to 300mm in the upper valleys of the Yangtse river(长江). The protected areas are home to around 6,000 species of plants, many of which are endemic to the region. The fauna found in the areas includes 173 species of mammals, of which 81 are endemic, and 417 species of birds, of which 22 are endemic.

Although this region has been acknowledged as a natural World Heritage Site, its demographic make-up also is highly interesting as it contains many of the twenty-five minorities found in Yunnan province including the Derung(独龙族), the smallest of all of China's minority groups. Some of the other minorities found in this region are the Tibetan people(藏族), the Nu people(怒族), Lisu(傈僳族), Bai(白族), Pumi(普米族) and Naxi(纳西族). Many of these minorities still use traditional costumes as their normal daily attire.

In the same region as the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas lies the Old Town of Lijiang(丽江), which is also a world heritage site in its own right.

三江并流是指金沙江、澜沧江和怒江这三条发源于青藏高原的大江在云南省境内自北向南并行奔流170多公里, 穿越担当力卡山、高黎贡山、怒山和云岭等崇山峻岭之间,形成世界上罕见的“江水并流而不交汇”的奇特自然地理景观。其间澜沧江与金沙江最短直线距离为66 公里, 澜沧江与怒江的最短直线距离不到19公里。


(source: wikipedia)

Thursday, October 14, 2010

Kunming-Bangkok Expressway

Take a ride down the newly-completed Route 3 Highway through Lao PDR, funded by ADB, linking Kunming and Bangkok.

Kunming-Bangkok Expressway is the first international expressway from China. It starts at Kunming, the provincial capital of Yunnan province in southwestern China, and ends at Bangkok, the capital of Thailand.

The expressway is approximately 1,900 km in length, about 730 km is in China and about 250 km is in Laos. It is jointly funded by China, Laos, Thailand and the Asian Development Bank. It stretches south from Kunming to Xiaomenyang (16 km from Jinghong) and cross the Lao border at Mohan. It traverses through jungle and highlands in southern Yunnan and Laos before entering Thailand at Chiang Khong. It continues southward, mostly as Thailand Highway 1 (named Phahonyothin Road), until it reaches Bangkok. A possible parallel alternative route, via Keng Tung in Burma, is also considered.

The route from Kunming to Chiang Rai will be Asian Highway route 3 (AH3).

As key part of Asian road network, the project is an important infrastructural facility for construction of the China-ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) free trade zone and the Lancang-Mekong River subregional economic cooperation. The 4,000-km Mekong River, also called Lancang River in China, begins in the Tibet plateau and flows through China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. Experts estimate the full opening of the highway will realize cargo transport worth 400 billion U.S. dollars each year.

[Kunming-Bangkok Highway]
The Kunming-Bangkok Highway is an important trunk road in the Asian Highway Network. It is also an important passageway serving the economic co-operation among the Mekong riparian countries.

The China section: Kunming to Yuxi, Yuan jiang, Mohei,Simao, Xiaomenyang and Mohan/Boten

Laos section: Mohan/Boten - Luang Namtha - Houayxay/Chiang Khong

Thailand section: Chiang Khong - Chiang Rai -Tak Bangkok

The section of Kunming-Bangkok Highway in Yunnan starts in Kunming and ends at the Mohan Land Port between China and Laos. From there, the Highway will cut across the provinces of Luangnamtha and Bokeo and enter Chiang Kong in Thailand from Houayxay. In Thailand, the Highway will lead to the capital city of Bangkok through Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai. The Kunming-Bangkok Highway will stretch over a total length of 1,855 kilometers and it will be an expressway ( high-grade road ) according to design. It will be connected to the road network in Singapore and Malaysia. Yunnan Province has invested more than 12 billion yuan in the construction of the Highway. At present, most subsections in Yunnan have been either newly built or upgraded to meet the standard. Most part of the section in Thailand has also been completed. A joint working team led by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and consisting of experts from China, Laos, and Thailand will be responsible for the construction of the section in Laos, which is 247 kilometers long. Construction work will be done by the three countries and completed by year 2006. With the aid from the Chinese government, a sub-section of the Kunming-Bangkok Highway in Laos has started construction on April 26, 2004.

Monday, October 11, 2010

Connect to disconnect

Some said hand phone is a necessity in the modern world

Some said hand phone is an evil tools from Satan....

Some said hand phone is the modern technology that connect the world...

and the Telco said, hand phones are easy money to become richest in the world, the income come with time, just a finger away....every second the money transfer from the user's pocket to Telco's pockets...

Hand phone is a nightmare for sociologists; and a boon for psychologists...

Said no to hand phone; said no to technology that connected?....

Connected with wire, but disconnect with interpersonal relationship....

More communication with wire, more communication gaps with people....

Lucky, I choose no hand phone.....

The Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 was awarded to Liu Xiaobo "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China".

What is Nobel Prize?

The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of the cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace were first awarded in 1901. The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was instituted by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968 and was first awarded in 1969. Although technically not a Nobel Prize, its announcements and presentations are made along with the other prizes, with the exception of the Peace Prize which is awarded in Oslo, Norway. Each Nobel Prize is regarded as the most prestigious award in its field.

Who is Alfred Nobel?

Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers. He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1895 Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he converted into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistite, the immediate precurser to many smokeless military explosives. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, most of it from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous. In 1888, Alfred had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary, titled ‘The merchant of death is dead’, in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature. Alfred was disappointed with what he read and concerned with how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896 Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy, at the age of 63 from a cerebral hemorrhage.

To the surprise of many, Nobel's last will requested that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature. Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. The last was written over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million SEK (c. US$186 million in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes. Because of the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes.

Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organisations were established: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded, and in 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly-created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II. In 1905, the Union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved. Thereafter Norway's Nobel Committee remained responsible for awarding the Nobel Peace Prize and the Swedish institutions retained responsibility for the other prizes.

The Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organisation on 29 June 1900, to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal administration related to the prizes. The Foundation is not involved in the process of selecting the Nobel laureates. In many ways the Nobel Foundation is similar to an investment company, in that it invests Nobel's money to create a solid funding base for the prizes and the administrative activities. The Nobel Foundation is exempt from all taxes in Sweden (since 1946) and from investment taxes in the United States (since 1953).

Nobel Peace Prize

The highest honor awarded to peace maker is the Nobel Prize in Peace, awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. It is awarded annually to notable peacemakers and visionaries who have overcome violence, conflict or oppression through their moral leadership, those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations". This means that these are the people who risk their lives in order to save people from evils that the world has brought upon us, or do anything else in order to make the world a better place for any living being that is living in it.

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize should be awarded to the person who

“ ...shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses”

Some of the past Nobel laureates included the following reputable and worthy peace makers, a full list however can obtained from the Nobel Foundation website.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Mother Teresa

Lech Walesa

Aung San Suu Kyi

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev

Nelson Mandela, Frederik Willem de Klerk

What is peace?

The word "peace" comes from the Greek word eirene, the Greek equivalent for the Hebrew word shalom, which expresses the idea of wholeness, completeness, or tranquility in the soul that is unaffected by the outward circumstances or pressures. The word eirene strongly suggests the rule of order in place of chaos. When a person is dominated by peace, he has a calm, inner stability that results in the ability to conduct himself peacefully, even in the midst of circumstances that would normally be very nerve-wracking, traumatic, or upsetting...Rather than allowing the difficulties and pressures of life to break him, a person who is possessed by peace is whole, complete, orderly, stable, and poised for blessing. (Sparkling Gems from the Greek, Rick Renner)

"Peace is not the absence of conflict, but the presence of God no matter what the conflict." -Anonymous

Chinese word for peace is "和平"(hépíng), "和"or He which means harmony,calm. "平" or Ping which means balance, equality. The Han character of "和",is the combination of 禾 & 口. "口"is a mouth, "禾" which means rice plant. The meaning of peace(和平) to Chinese is simple, harmony and fairness, which is derived from a mouthful of rice for each citizen. The national agenda of the Chinese government from ancient time to modern time is always the same, to feed the large population with the same mouthful of rice equally; which comprising the political wisdom of equality and self sufficiency. When there is no hungry people, there will be peace, and no war. The priority of China is food sufficiency(和), stability, harmony(和), fairness & Equality(平), that may not mean political liberty to a communist country ...... So to Chinese, their philosophy of peace is stability, harmony, fairness, and food sufficiency.

The critic of Nobel Peace Prize

Among other criticisms, the Nobel Committees have been accused of having a political agenda, and of omitting more deserving candidates. They have also been accused of Eurocentrism. This is especially true for the Literature Prize. But Nobel Peace Prize is more controversial than Nobel Literature Prize.

A major criticism of the peace-prize is the regular failure to award individuals with widely recognized contributions to peace. In 2009 Foreign Policy magazine listed Mohandas Gandhi, Eleanor Roosevelt, Václav Havel, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Sari Nusseibeh, Corazon Aquino and Liu Xiaobo as people who "never won the prize, but should have". Liu Xiaobo has since been awarded the award in 2010. Other notable omissions that have drawn criticism include Pope John Paul II and Dorothy Day. It was widely reported that Irena Sendler had been nominated for the 2007 prize, which was jointly won by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Al Gore.
The omission of Mahatma Gandhi has been particularly widely discussed, including in public statements by various members of the Nobel Committee. The Committee has confirmed that Gandhi was nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947 and, finally, a few days before his death in January 1948. The omission has been publicly regretted by later members of the Nobel Committee. In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the ground that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year. Later, when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi". Is Dalai Lama the same status as Mahatma Gandhi?, awarded Nobel peace Prize to Dalai Lama as a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi was an insult to him. Dalai Lama with his historical past in feudal Tibet, is incomparable to Mahatma Gandhi, who is the symbol and Guru of Peace for the world citizen. Dalai Lama is merely a religion leader and political leader with a questionable past.

Other high profile individuals with widely recognized contributions to peace have been missed out. As well as Gandhi, Foreign Policy lists Eleanor Roosevelt, Václav Havel, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Sari Nusseibeh and Corazon Aquino as people who "never won the prize, but should have."

One of the controversial Peace Prizes was the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Barack Obama. Nominations had closed only eleven days after Obama took office as President, but the actual evaluation occurred over the next eight months. Obama himself stated that he did not feel he deserved the award, and that he did not feel worthy of the company the award would place him in. Past winners of the Peace Prize were divided, some saying that Obama deserved the award, and others saying he had not yet earned it. Obama's award, along with the previous Peace Prizes for Jimmy Carter and Al Gore, prompted accusations of a left-wing bias. This was the Nobel Peace Prize for global joke, with clear political agenda.

Among the most criticised Nobel Peace Prizes was the one awarded to Henry Kissinger and Lê Ðức Thọ, who later declined the prize. This led to two Norwegian Nobel Committee members resigning. Kissinger and Thọ were awarded the prize for negotiating a ceasefire between North Vietnam and the United States in January 1973. However, when the award was announced hostilities still occurred from both sides. Many critics were of the opinion that Kissinger was not a peace-maker but the opposite; responsible for widening the war.

Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin received the Peace Prize in 1994 for their efforts in making peace between Israel and Palestine. According to journalist Caroline Frost many issues, such as the plight of Palestinian refugees, had not been addressed and no lasting peace was established between Israel and Palestine. Immediately after the award was announced one of the five Norwegian Nobel Committee members denounced Arafat as a terrorist and resigned. Additional misgivings about Arafat were widely expressed in various newspapers. The prize did not bring peace to Palestine, the conflict still continue until today, where is peace?....

(source: mainly extract from wikipedia)

Nobel Peace Prize remain the most controversial, the reputation as the highest award for peace has faded and less regard by the global citizen. Many times the committee may not understand the meaning of peace, which must be neutral without any political, religion and racial bias. It was accused of Eurocentrism. Can it be the global award? Or merely European award?

Many time it was tinted with political intention. Nobel Peace Prize bring more controversial, not qualified as peace award. This award was only given by Norway and Swedish ideal of peace, or the western ideal for peace…. Not the global peace award…..Is it time the Nobel Foundation going global and with membership consist of global citizen?...... Did the nominee committee understand the intention of Nobel, who was armaments manufacturer, a dynamite inventor. His purpose of the Nobel Peace Prize was to award the prize to a worthy person who promote peace, especially global peace(the best work for fraternity between nations), abolition and reduction of standing armies, promotion for peace congresses….This was the most value prize that Nobel cherish, as it related to his personal background of armaments manufacturing, a peace that he so desperately looking for….

If it is given for political reason; it is not Nobel Peace Prize, but Nobel Politic Prize. Nobel Peace Prize is also not Nobel Human Right Prize; nor Nobel Opposition Prize, not Nobel Democracy Prize, it is not Nobel Dissident Prize. Nobel will never want to involve in political ideology which normally create conflicts and wars. He will never want to discredit a nation by using Nobel Peace Prize as a tool.

What is the purpose of Nobel Peace Prize? is it for the peace of the world? or for the political development of the world, following the definition of peace by the selection committee?......The political system of the country is for the people of the said country to decide, not other people, not even the foreign institutions or leaders...any intentional involvement of the external parties,into the affairs of the country, without the consent of the people of the said country, is the source of conflict and war, not peace. Only the people of the country can decide their future, their political system, they have the right to say "No" to the external influence; that is the meaning of liberty, the ability to say "No" under undue pressure. The ability to scarify little personal freedom to achieve peace for the country and other people. that is the effort of peace....

As it is Nobel Peace Prize; Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa, Corazon Aquino, Aung San Suu Kyi, these are the right person to award the prize, who are accepted by people of the world….. a peace maker…..the person who practice peace and use it as a way to bring peace to people.

If there is no worthy recipient, please do not award to anyone … a respect to Nobel’s last wish.

“ ...shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses”

The reminder to Nobel Peace Prize Nomination Committee, "Peace describes a society or a relationship that is operating harmoniously and without violent conflict. Peace is commonly understood as the absence of hostility, or the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, safety in matters of social or economic welfare, the acknowledgment of equality and fairness in political relationships".

In international relations, peacetime is the absence of any war or conflict. The study of peace also involves the causes for its absence or loss. These potential causes include: insecurity, social injustice, economic inequality, political and religious radicalism, and acute racism and nationalism.

Another issue is will democracy ensure peace?; will liberty ensure peace? .....some of today's most violent country are from democratic country; are liberal country with freedom, where even guns can be easily obtained, did the country produce peace?. Some religion country promote war. Democracy, demon go crazy when there is no peace, which provide room for more military dictators. Singapore has less liberty according to some critic, but under a responsible government, it is better than many liberal countries. It is peaceful and developed. How did the Nobel Prize Selection Committee define peace?

Will Liu Xiaobo has peace to come personally to receive the Nobel Peace Prize? Will China has the confident to allow the dissident Nobel Awardee to travel to Oslo? Will the award bring peace or rather democracy, human right, liberty to China in future? or will it bring political chaos or more control in China?.......(Note: the blogger is neutral on 2010 award). Will Nobel Peace Prize bring real peace to China? or turning China into westernized country according to Western ideal?.....or will it bring improvement to human right, and better treatment for all political prisoners in China?...we may ask China to free political prisoners, but is there any political prisoner in the west? we must differentiate political prisoners and criminal prisoners, however some political prisoner may become criminal terrorist....will the Nobel peace prize lead to release of peaceful political prisoners?....we hope for the positive in China. The change from communism to democracy is for Chinese citizen to decide, not outsiders, not Nobel Peace Prize......Chinese people have enjoy much freedom, have enjoy better standard of living than many democratic countries; it is only they are having different political system, different tolerance level to dissidents and opposition views....

May be it is the Chinese people, the ordinary citizen who deserve the Nobel Peace Price; their spirit to excel and improve the economy, and to maintain stability of the country, where every people have a bowl of rice to eat in China. The heavy task on them to be self sufficiency, and improve their standard of life......despite some limitation of political freedom... but they are able to maintain peace....rather than political chaos....

Best wishes to China.....

Congratulation , Liu Xiaobo.....

"Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid." (John 14:27)"

Gandhi Peace Prize

There is another peace award, Gandhi Peace Prize, named after a peace maker worthy of Nobel Peace Prize but was never awarded, despite numerous nomination. The Peace Prize from Asia.

The International Gandhi Peace Prize, named after Mahatma Gandhi, is awarded annually by the Government of India. It is launched as a tribute to the ideals espoused by Gandhi in 1995 on the occasion of the 125th anniversary of his birth. This is an annual award given to individuals and institutions for their contributions towards social, economic and political transformation through non-violence and other Gandhian methods. The award carries Rs. 10 million in cash, convertible in any currency in the world, a plaque and a citation. It is open to all persons regardless of nationality, race, creed or sex.

Will it become an alternative to Nobel Peace Prize, and suppressed them for a more meaningful peace prize, without political biased?. But sad to say the last award was in 2005. May be since 2005, there is no one worthy of the award?....

They shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks;
nation shall not lift up sword against nation,
neither shall they learn war any more.
(Isaiah 2:4)

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1. The Nobel Peace Prize 2010,
2. Nobel Prize,
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4. Nobel Laureate Liu Xiaobo weeps at prize honoring Tiananmen dead,
5. The Gandhi Peace Award;

Guilin, Yunan((桂林市)

Guilin, China

The major tourist attraction of Guangxi is Guilin, a town famed across China and the world for its spectacular setting by the Lijiang River (Li River,漓江) amongst severe karst peaks. It also used to be the capital of Guangxi, and Jingjiang Princes City, the old princes residence, is open to the public. South of Guilin down the river is the town of Yangshuo(阳朔), which has become a favorite destination for foreign tourists, particularly backpackers.