Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Kano Jigoro(嘉納 治五郎) - Father of Judo

Here is another opponent of Japanese militarism, he is the father of Judo, involved in International Olympic until the last day of his life. He fight for Tokyo Olympic despite the odds was against him(included the Japanese military). Because of his patriotic spirit, and opposition to militarism, he whole hearty believed by having Olympic games in Japan, it will promoted the spirit of global peace in Japan and avoiding war by Japanese militarism. He successfully gained the right for Japan to hold 1940 Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo, but the game was later cancelled by Japanese government after his death.

As the military took over more aspects of Japanese life, Kano resisted the use of Judo for military purposes, over the militarists strenuous objections... he was bold to tell the military government, get out from Judo....

He may had failed, but the sport he found, Judo today is one of the regular sport event in Summer Olympic Games. His name and spirit of sport and peace continue throughout the world, through sport and Judo.....

He is a Japanese hero....one of only few who dare to stand up against militarism.

Kano Jigoro(嘉納治五郎, 28 October 1860 – 4 May 1938), 柔道の父

Kanō Jigorō(嘉納 治五郎, 28 October 1860 – 4 May 1938), creator of Judo and founder of the modern Japanese educational system, member of Japan's Olympic Committee, and de-facto foreign minister for Japan was a staunch opponent of militarism. Concerned that his Judo school, the Kodokan, would be used as a military training center, he obtained a promise from the Emperor that it would not be. Alternate sources list different causes of death, and some consider his passing to be suspicious.

Kano Jigoro(嘉納 治五郎) - Father of Judo

Judo was the first Japanese martial art to gain widespread international recognition, and the first to become an official Olympic sport. Pedagogical innovations attributed to Kanō include the use of black and white belts, and the introduction of dan ranking to show the relative ranking between members of a martial art style. Well-known mottoes attributed to Kanō include "Maximum Efficiency with Minimum Effort"「精力善用] and "Mutual Welfare and Benefit."「自他共栄」.

1860-1867 As a child

1860- Kano was born into a relatively affluent family. His father, Jirosaku(嘉納治朗作(希芝),b 1813-d1885), was the second son of the head priest of the Shinto Hiyoshi shrine in Shiga Prefecture. He married Sadako Kano(b? – d1869), daughter of the owner of Kiku-Masamune sake brewing company and was adopted by the family, changing his name to Kano, and ultimately became an official in the Bakufu government.
Kano Jigoro, the youngest of five children, was born in what is now Hyogo Prefecture on October 28, 1860. Jigoro Kano was born in the seaside town of Mikage in 1860. His father and uncle were both adopted by Kano family as mukoyoshi .

Note: A mukoyōshi (婿養子) (literally "adopted son-in-law") is a man who is adopted into a family without a male heir, and who takes the family's surname. (Traditionally in Japan, a woman takes her husband's name and is adopted into his family; see married and maiden names: Japan.) This is done to preserve the name and occupation of the family when there is no suitable male heir. Usually, when there is an unwed daughter of a suitable age, she will marry the mukoyōshi, but if there is no daughter, the mukoyōshi can take a bride from outside his adopted family. Mukoyōshi have a low status in society, yet in one study, up to a quarter of heirs in a community were mukoyōshi.

Milage was located near Kobe, famous for sake industry. Kano was the proprietor of the famous Kiku Masamune brand, now under Kiku-Masamune Sake Brewing Co.,Ltd.

1867- 188 As Student

1867- Jigoro Kano had an academic upbringing and, from the age of seven, he studied English, Japanese calligraphy (書道 shodō) and the Four Confucian Texts (四書 Shisho) under a number of tutors.

1870- Kanō became a student in 1870 in the Seitatsu Shojuku(成達書塾) in Ryōkoku, which is pretty much a school for learning how to write. His teacher was Ubukata Keidō. He also got acquainted there with the Chinese Classics. Ubukata-sensei himself was strongly influenced by Western thought and tried to convey this on to Kanō. Given Kanō’s young and inexperienced age, a first step to do was to recommend that he’d study English. He was sent to Mitsukuri Shūhei to do so.

1873- Studied at boarding school, Ikuei Gijuku, located at Karasumori-cho, Shiba, Tokyo. When he was fourteen, Kano began boarding at an English-medium school, Ikuei-Gijuku in Shiba, Tokyo. The culture of bullying endemic at this school was the catalyst that caused Kano to seek out a Jujutsu (柔術 Jūjutsu) dojo (道場 dōjō, training place) at which to train.

1874- Transfer to English Department, Tokyo School of Foreign Language. Classmate included Takaaki Kato, who later become Prime Minister. Tōkyō School of Foreign Languages or Tōkyō Gaikokugo Gakkō(東京外国語学校).

1875- Attended Kaisei School(Tokyo Kaisei Gakko), Tokyo (Now 開成中学校・高等学校(かいせいちゅうがっこう・こうとうがっこう、, Kaisei Junior & Senior High School). The school, which has produced many notable alumni, was founded in 1871. At first, it was established as a Kyōryū Gakkō of the prepschool to Senior school such as First High School(After the WWⅡ,this school was integrated into The University of Tokyo.). It is located in Arakawa, Tokyo. The school formed the foundation for the nation’s first university, Tokyo University, four years later in 1877. ( Source: The history of modern Japanese education: constructing the national school system,1872-1890, by Benjamin C. Duke, Rutgers University Press, 2009; pg 152-156)

1877- Mr. Kano studied politics and economic at Tokyo University(就讀東京大学文学部,主修哲學 東大文学部一年). Tōkyō University or Tōdai did not exist in 1875, and was only created in 1877; the old name of Imperial University (帝國大學, Teikoku daigaku) was only given in 1886, five years after Kanō graduated, and its name was changed again in 1897 into Tōkyō Imperial University(東京帝國大學 Tōkyō Teikoku daigaku) (see: http://www.u-tokyo.a.../b03_02_e.html)

The Faculty of Letters at The University of Tokyo is Japan’s oldest humanities department. It is comprised of the “three humanities” (philosophy, history, and literature) as well as the behavioral sciences. The Faculty of Letters dates back to 1877, the year the Tokyo Kaisei School and the Tokyo Medical School were combined into the University of Tokyo. From the beginning, the Faculty featured a curriculum that combined Western knowledge with Sino-Japanese scholarly traditions, and efforts have always been made to sustain a system of learning that maintains a balance between these two traditions. The University of Tokyo was later renamed Tokyo Imperial University, and after the war it was restructured under a new system, returning to its original name.(source: The History of Faculty of Letters, http://www.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/eng/history/history.html)

1878 - He was a private school student at Nisho Gakusha (二松学舎), now Nishogakusha University,二松學舍大学)

二松学舍,从1877年三岛中洲在东京麴町一番町(现实东京都千代田区三番町)开设了的汉学私塾开始。二松的名庭园有象征不变的节操,坚贞的松之木二个的根据事,又的韩愈『蓝田县丞厅墙记』请求有作为校舍的意义,作为学校到将来继续的事被命名了. 日文和汉文的二松』

1979- Approached to teach in Gakushuin while still studying . Moved to Eishoji, and started preparatory school, Kano Juku( 嘉納塾) in Feb 1979 . Kano Juku( 嘉納塾)was a tutoring school(the forerunner of the Kodokan) where Kano taught English. Similar to the Kodokan at that time, he had few pupils.

1881- He graduated in July of 1881 (Meiji 14, 7th month)from Tokyo University with a Bachelor’s Degree of Letters or Bungakushi(文学士,東京大学文学部哲学政治学理財学科卒業). Noted, many sources stated Tokyo Imperial University, which is wrong, as it was still Tokyo University.

1882 – He returned to the same Faculty of Letters to focus on Aesthetics and Moral Philosophy, in what thus was graduate study (or as they call it in England ‘Postgraduate). He finished this study in July of 1882. It is there where he also studied under Ernest F. Fennolosa.

1882-1909 As Educator

1882- The year 1882 was a landmark year for Jigoro Kano. He was appointed lecturer(学習院教授補,Relief lecturer) in politics and economics at Gakushuuin(学習院). After appointment as lecturer in Gakushuuin, he moved to Eisho Ji (永勝寺).

In 1882 Kano Jigoro organized the Kodokan judo school at Eishoji, a Buddhist temple in Shitayakita, Kita Inari-cho, Tokyo(now Higashi Ueno, Daito –ku), Tokyo. Judo (Japanese: 'the way of softness'). It started as a twelve Tatami room.

He became an instructor of the Gakushuin in 1882 and eleven years.

In 1882 he started the Kobunkan English Language School. This school was to teach Japanese children the English language. The school was closed in 1889 when Dr. Kano took his first trip abroad.


Gakushuuin(学習院), a private school for the nobility or Imperial family members and peerage(Kazoku,華族), administrated by Gakushuin (華族會館). The college was initially found in 1847 in Kyoto Imperial Palace or Kyōto Gosho (京都御所), it then moved to Kanda Nishiki-cho ,Tokyo in 1877. The meaning of Gakushuuin(学習院) is Chinese characters for "to be taught" and "to learn" in the following quotation from the Analects of Confucius: "To be taught and to learn the truth is such a precious thing."

1882 - Gakushuin become independent from Peer Club(學習院脫離華族會館獨立),and under Ministry of education(文部卿).Note: 文部卿 was now Minister of Education( 文部大臣)from 1885.

1884 Gakushuin became a government school under the jurisdiction of the The Imperial Household Agency (宮內廳, Kunaichō), with entry now open to children from outside the ranks of the nobility as well. It was the only government college administrated by The Imperial Houehold Agency(宮內廳, Kunaichō), and not under Education ministry(文部卿).The college was under leadership of Lt General Tateki Tani , later Viscount Tani Tateki (谷干城), who later become Minister of Agriculture and Commerce in 1885.

The Imperial Household Agency (宮內廳, Kunaichō) is a government agency of Japan in charge of the state matters concerning Japan's imperial family and also keeping the Privy Seal and the State Seal. In 1911, it was named the Imperial Household Ministry (宮内省 Kunaishō).

Then, following the establishment of a higher education section, lectures in subjects such as politics, law and literature were held for 12 years between 1893 and 1905. It was later reformed in 1949 as a private university. Now it is Gakushuin University (学習院大學)(http://www.gakushuin.ac.jp/univ/english/his/index.html)

1883- Kano received his teaching license in Kito-Ryu. The dojo was moved to larger area in Kanda, Tokyo.

1884-1887 Professor of economic at Komaba Agricultural College(now Tokyo University of Agriculture)駒場農学校理財学教授(駒場農学校(こまばのうがっこう)は、日本の旧制教育機関。現在の東京大学農学部、筑波大学、東京農工大学農学部の前身にあたる農学に関する日本初の総合教育・研究機関であった)

1885- It was reported he received his Doctorate from Gakushuin in 1885 and he was promoted to Professorship(教授), some even said he become Principal of Gakushuin. But the principal of Gakushuuin was 谷干城 from 1884-1885. May be he was promoted to Soninkan,a senior official. Gakushuin was not a university, it was not possible to award a doctorate degree.(戰前學習院只有幼稚園至高等科,雖然曾經於1893年嘗試開辦大學科,但於1905年廢止).

(In Japanese ‘instructor’ 師 or 指南番or lecturer 専任講師 is not a ‘professor’ 大学教授, but some college may called its lecturer 教授)

1886- Headmaster of Goko( 第五級高等學校校長,(旧制第五高等中学校),now Kumamoto University((現・熊本大学).

1887- In 1887 the young son of the Meiji emperor began attending the Gakushuin and Kano had the job of supervising his education and choosing his classmates. This student was destined to become the Taisho Emperor of Japan. In 1884 Kano was promoted to Soninkan which meant that he became a senior official appointed by the Imperial Household Agency and who had to report directly to the then Emperor. It seems quite likely that Kano taught him the ‘modern’ Western sciences of economics and politics

1888- Eventually a military man by the name of Lt. General Miura Sogo(三浦梧楼)was brought in to head the Gakushuin.

1889- Promoted as Vice-Principal of Gakushuin( 学習院教頭,きょうとう). Viscount Miura Gorō (三浦梧楼)was the principal from 1888 to 1892. A clash of opinions between Kano and Miura Gorō resulted in Kano being sent abroad for sixteen months by the Imperial Household Agency to Europe to study European education. Miura being a military man favored a more cadet style education at the Gakushuin and wanted to confine the school to educating the sons of the former military families. Kano on the other hand was keen to educate the brightest people without regard to their samurai background or lack of it.

1889 - 1891 - Kano spent sixteen months touring Europe. First trip was to Paris, France.

1891-1893 - on his return to Japan, he was sent to Kumamoto on the island of Kyushu where he was appointed headmaster of the Kumamoto High school (1891-3). In 1891 he left the school and became the principal of the No. 5 Junior High School(第五高等学校長)in Kumamoto, Kyushu. While as principal at the school he introduced Judo as an additional gym class.

1893- He was appointed as Chief of the Inspectorate for School Textbooks, Tokyo. Six months later, he was appointed as Principal in the No. 1 Junior High School in Tokyo. 4 months later he become Principal of Tokyo Teacher Training college or Tokyo Koto Shihan Gakko(東京高等師範学校)until 1897.

A Qing's Chinese education reformer, Zhang Baixi(张百熙)and Viceroy of Huguang, Zhang Zhidong (張之洞), asked Kano to instruct Chinese students in Japanese education methods in 1893.

1894- 1894 appointed as Principal of Tokyo Teacher Training college or Tokyo Koto Shihan Gakko(東京高等師範学校),東京高等師範学校附属中学校(現・筑波大学附属中学校・高等学校), now Junior and Senior High School at Otsuka, University of Tsukuba

1896- Followed Minister of Education(文部大臣) to visit Kansai region, Japan in April(に随行して4月関西へ出張)

1898- Appointed Principal of Tokyo Teacher Training college or Tokyo Koto Shihan Gakko(東京高等師範学校)for the 2nd time, he held the position for 6 months. He was then with the Ministry of Education (文部省 Monbushō) from 1898–1901(日本的文部省擔任部門的主管)

1899-Director/Head of Bureau of General Education or Monbusho(文部省普通学務局長).

"Kobun Gakuin" school or Hongwen xueyuan(弘文學院)was opened as preparatory school for students from Manchu China. Initially it was called 亦樂書院, opened in 1899

1901-1920- Reappointed 3rd time as Principal of Tokyo Teacher Training college (Tokyo Koto Shihan Gakko, 東京高等師範学校) , now University of Tsukuba(東京教育大学を経た現在の筑波大学)September of 1893, he was appointed to the position of Principal at the Tokyo Teacher's Training College, which would later become a part of Tokyo University. This was quite a prestigious position for someone only thirty-three years old. It was also a position Kano would hold for another twenty-seven years, until 1920.

筑波大学, http://www.tsukuba.ac.jp/about/kano/index.html


Note: ^ 治五郎が東京高等師範学校附属中学校(現・筑波大学附属中学校・高等学校)の校長を務めたのは、1893年(明治27年) - 1897年(明治30年)の4年間、1898年(明治31年)に半年間、1901年(明治34年) - 1920年(大正9年)の20年間と通算では25年間近い。 同校の歴代校長の在任期間としては最長。

1899-1909 - The Kobun Gakuin(东京弘文学院) was founded as preparing schools for Chinese students in Japanese education. Approximately 8,000 students would visit this school and learn under the teachers Dr. Kano, the principal, selected. Dr. Kano was approached specifically for this. This shows how well Dr. Kano was respected in China and the rest of the world at this time. The Chinese students studied in the college included some of the famous personalities in modern China, including:

1. Lu Xun(魯迅,1881-1936), founder of modern Chinese literature ,
2. Huang Xing(黄興,1874-1916),Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen.
3. Yang Duo(楊度,1875-1931),politician
4. Qiu Jin(秋瑾,1875-1907),Chinese anti-Qing Empire revolutionary, feminist and writer. She was executed after a failed uprising and today is considered a hero in China.
5. Chen Duxiu(陳独秀,1879-1942), he was a leading figure in the anti-imperial Xinhai Revolution and the May Fourth Movement for Science and Democracy. Along with Li Dazhao, Chen was a co-founder of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921. He was its first General Secretary. Chen was an educator, philosopher, and politician.
6.Fan Yuanlian( 范源濂, 1876-1927), he was educationalist, Republic of China Minister of Education, Principal of Beijing Normal University

In 1902 Dr. Kano traveled to Peking, China. He went to share his ideas about solving the problem of education in China and visit Mr. Choshido . Unfortunately, the school was shut down in July of 1909; the year Dr. Kano became a member of the International Olympic Committee.

1909 July- Closed the Kobun Gakuin due to a decline in the number of students from China
Fall- Appointed as a member of the International Olympic Committee. Became the first Japanese member of the International Olympic Committee.

Kano is often called the father of Japanese Physical-education. He was in education sector of 26 years.

1909-1938 As Olympic Committee

1911 April- Established a judo teacher training school in the Kodokan; July- Established the Japan Sports Association and was appointed president

1912 July- Japan's first participation in the Olympic Games at the 5th Olympiad in Stockholm

1920 January- Retired as principal of Tokyo Higher Normal School

1921 March- Retired as president of the Japan Sports Association and became honorary president

1922 January- Established the Kodokan Culture Association . Elected to the House of Peers.

1922- He was elected to the Upper House of Aristocrats (Ki-zoku-In 貴族議員) in 1922 when Kano had turned sixty two. The House of Peers of Japan (貴族院, Kizokuin ) was the upper house of the Imperial Diet, as mandated under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan (in effect from 11 February 1889 to 3 May 1947). The House of Councillors(参議院 Sangiin) is the successor to the pre-war House of Peers.

During March 1922, Kanō brought all this to fruition through the introduction of the Kodokan Bunkakai, or Kodokan Cultural Association. This organization held its first meeting at Tokyo's Seiyoken Hotel on 5 April 1922, and held its first public lecture three days later at the YMCA hall in Kanda.

1924 March- Appointed honorary professor of Tokyo Higher Normal School((東京師範学校 Tōkyō Shihan Gakkō)

1927- Founding of Nada Middle School(灘中学). Now the school is known as Nada High School(灘高等学校),and Nada Junior High School(灘中学校)which is the affiliate school of Nada High School. The school was found by the sake producers of Nada Ku region(灘区). 嘉納治郎右衛門(菊正宗, now Kiku-Masamune Sake Brewing Co.,Ltd.(菊正宗酒造株式会社), 嘉納治兵衛(白鶴宗, now Hakutsuru Sake Brewing Company Limited (白鶴酒造株式会社), and 山邑太左衛門(櫻正宗, now Sakuramasamune Company, Limited (櫻正宗株式会社).

1928 Attended the Olympic Games in Amsterdam as a member of the International Olympic Comittee. He was giving a speech to first batch students at Nada Middle School(灘中学第一回入学式で訓辞)

1933- The aged expert was Sir Jigoro Kano, life-member of the Japanese House of Peers and Founder/President of Kodo-Kwan school, arrived by Hakosaki Meru on his way to Japan, after European tour. He demonstrated to crowd of 300 at Seaview Hotel, Singapore(The Straits Times, 5 November 1933, Page 1)

1934- In 1934, Kanō quit giving public exhibitions. He was giving speech at the first graduation of Nada Middle School(灘中学第一回卒業式で訓辞)

1936 July- Attended the IOC Session in Berlin where Tokyo succeeded in its bid to host the 12th Olympic Games (1940). In the vote conducted at the Berlin IOC Session in July 1936, Tokyo beat off the challenge of Helsinki by 36 votes to 27. Kano said the following at this session: "My 27 years of Olympic activity since becoming an IOC member have finally borne fruit. Now, the Tokyo Olympics must be an example to the world and the Olympics must use this opportunity to become a part of global culture." the first games held outside Europe and the USA. Japan was the first country in the Far East to be given a Games.

1938- In March, the IOC held its 38th Session in Cairo. Despite all rumors to the contrary, Japan declared that it did indeed intend to stage the Games irrespective of the persistence of war with China. Klingeberg (Techinical Advisor to Tokyo Olympic appointed 1-4-1937), present in Cairo to report on Tokyo's progress, lent verbal support to Japan's resolve. Many IOC members, however, harbored severe reservations about the Games remaining in Japan. In the face of an offer from Finland to stage both Summer and Winter Games if Japan could not, the members voted to give the IOC Executive Committee full authority to transfer the Games accordingly if the need arose.

Kano sought to have the 1940 Olympics held in Tokyo. "Sportsmanship is above war," he told one press conference. He succeeded, amazingly, at a time when Japan was seen as suspect and ruthless in its colonization of its neighbors. That Kano was successful can only be attributed to the great respect he had from the world, and also, undoubtedly, respect at his courage for seeking the games, to bring the spotlight of the world on Japan. America and England, both resolutely opposed to Japanese policies in the Far East, ultimately supported Kano's controversial bid.

Kano Jigoro(嘉納治五郎) died on 4-5-1938. Kanō died at sea, while on board the NYK Line motor vessel MV Hikawa Maru, while returning from Cairo. Jigoro did not return to Japan immediately after Tokyo won its hosting bid in Cairo. Instead, he attended the memorial service being held for Baron de Coubertin in Athens. He then traveled to the United States via Italy and France. In the United States, he met with the other IOC (International Olympic Committee) members and thanked them for their cooperation in Japan's bid to host the Olympics, and requested their help in ensuring that as many athletes as possible participate. This was very much in keeping with Jigoro's Judo creed of "beginning and ending with respect (a bow)". Having completed this duty, Jigoro boarded a ship for Japan, and died en route, never to set foot in his homeland again. His advanced age, combined with fatigue from the journey, had brought on pneumonia.

Within a few weeks of Kano's death, the government of Japan cancelled the games.

At 28th meeting of the organizing committee on 16-7-1938, the Minister of Public Welfare, Marquis Kido informed Japan’s decision of cancellation of Tokyo Olympic and Sapparo Winter Olympic.( Pg 121 – Pg 123, 1940 Tokyo Olympic Organizers Report)

Prince Iyesato Tokugawa, President of Organizing Committee, informed IOC on the development after cencellation of Tokyo Olympic(pg 174 –pg 175, 1940 Tokyo Olympic Organizers Report)

The Japanese government, faced with the possibility of two more years of conflict in China and shortage of funds and materials, has abandoned its support of plans to hold the 1940 games in Tokyo.

The Japanese army’s opposition to the game as an influence for internationalism, considered hostile to the orthodox military creed of Japan, also was a powerful factor in the decision to give up the Olympic.(source: The evening idependence , St. Petersburg, Florida 13-7-1938)

Within a few months, invaded China from Manchuria. The prime minister Prince Konoe Fumimaro(近衞文麿,b1891-d 1945) and his cohorts were all avid proponents of Budo (武道). Not to be confused with militarism, budo is a process of training throughout one's life to attain mastery of self.

May be he was extremely worried about the possibility of Tokyo Olympic before he died, and sad about the development of Japanese militarism ?....

Suggested reading/articles

1. Judo Memoirs of Jigoro Kano, by Brian N. Watson, Trafford Publishing, 2008
2. Pg 121 – Pg 123, pg 174 –pg 175 1940 Tokyo Olympic Organizers Report
3. Adolf Hitler, Carl Diem, Werner Klingeberg, and the Thousand Year Reich: Nazi Germany and Its Envisioned Post-War Olympic World, by Garth Paton and Robert K. Barney
4. The Olympic Movement and Kano Jigoro http://www.joc.or.jp/english/historyjapan/kano_jigoro.html
5. Chen Duxiu's early years: The importance of personal connections in the social and intellectual transformation of China 1895—1920, by Anne Shen Chao, Rice University, ProQuest, 2009
6. 弘文學院退學風潮, 辛亥革命网 2010年11月11日 来源:辛亥革命網, 作者:王瑞慶http://big5.xhgmw.org/archive-50012.shtml
7.A Short History of Tokyo University of Education, http://members.jcom.home.ne.jp/lionsboy/shousi.htm(in Japanese)

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