Monday, October 10, 2011

Dr Sun Yat-sen & Taiwan


Taiwan or Formosa, is an island, of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. It is now ROC(Republic of China)after Chinese Civil War.

View Larger Map

Kingdom of Tungning(1661-1683)

1624, Dutch established commercial base in Taiwan.The Dutch made Taiwan a colony with its colonial capital at Tayoan City (present day Anping, Tainan).The Dutch military presence was concentrated at a stronghold called Castle Zeelandia.

In 1661, a Chinese fleet led by the Ming loyalist Cheng Ch'eng-kung (Zheng Chenggong鄭成功,1624-1662, known in the West as Koxinga) retreated from the mainland and landed on Luerhmen (鹿耳门),Taiwan. Cheng expelled the Dutch and established Taiwan as a base in his attempt to restore the Ming Dynasty. A pro-Ming Dynasty state, it was founded by Koxinga (also known as Zheng Chenggong) after the Ming government in mainland China was overtaken by the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty. Koxinga hoped to use the island to train military forces and use it as a base of operations for recapturing the mainland from the Manchus. He died shortly thereafter on 23/6/1662, Zheng Jing(鄭經)succeeded his father as the King of Tungning. Following death of Zheng Jing in 1681, the lack of an official heir meant rule of Taiwan would pass to his illegitimate son. This caused great division in the government and military powers, resulting in a exceptionally destructive struggle for succession.

Prince of Yanping (延平郡王), Ming Empire
- 1661-1662 Zheng Chenggong
King of Tungning
- 1662 - 1682 Zheng Jing
- 1682 - 1683 Zheng Keshuang

Qing dispatched their navy with Shi Lang(施琅) at the head, destroying the Zheng fleet at the Penghu Islands. In 1683 after the Battle of Penghu, Qing troops landed in Taiwan, Zheng Keshuang(鄭克塽)gave in to the Qing Dynasty's demand of surrender, and his kingdom was incorporated into the Qing Empire as part of Fujian province, ending two decades of rule by the Zheng family. Ironically, Shi Lang(施琅) was the captain of the naval fleet of Zheng Chenggong's father, Zheng Zhilong(鄭芝龍).

Taiwan under Qing Dynasty rule

From 1680 the Qing Dynasty ruled Taiwan as a prefecture and in 1875 divided the island into two prefectures, north and south. In 1887 the island was made into a separate Chinese province. Manchu ruled Taiwan from 1683 to 1895. It was part of Manchu empire(now China).

- 1885 - 1891 Liu Mingchuan
- 1894 - 1895 Tang Ching-sung

Japanese Occupation 1895-1945

Japan had sought to control Taiwan since 1592, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi began extending Japanese influence overseas. In 1609, the Tokugawa Shogunate sent Arima Harunobu on an exploratory mission. In 1616, Murayama Toan led an unsuccessful invasion of the island.

In 1871, an Okinawan vessel shipwrecked on the southern tip of Taiwan and the crew of fifty-four was beheaded by the Paiwan aborigines. The Ryūkyū Kingdom kept a tributary relationship with Great Qing Empire at the same time was subordinate to Satsuma Domain of Japan. When Japan sought compensation from Qing China, it was first rejected because Qing considered the incident an internal affair since Taiwan was a prefecture of Fujian Province of Qing and the Ryūkyū Kingdom was a tributary of Qing. When Japanese foreign minister Soejima Taneomi asked the compensation again claiming four of the victims were Japanese citizens from Okayama prefecture of Japan, Qing officials rejected the demand on the grounds that the "wild" and "unsubjugated" aboriginals (台灣生番/台湾生番) were outside its jurisdiction.The open renunciation of sovereignty led to a Japanese invasion of Taiwan. In 1874, an expeditionary force of three thousand troops was sent to the island. There were about thirty Taiwanese and 543 Japanese casualties

The Qing Dynasty was defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and Taiwan and Penghu were ceded in full sovereignty to the Empire of Japan. Inhabitants wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China. Very few Taiwanese saw this as feasible.

However, on 25 May 1895, a group of pro-Qing high officials proclaimed the Republic of Formosa to resist impending Japanese rule. Japanese forces entered the capital at Tainan and quelled this resistance on 21 October 1895. The first republic last only about 5 months. Taiwan was under the control of Japanese empire for 50 years from 1895 to 1945. Taiwan under Empire of Japan rule ended after it lost World War II and signed the Instrument of Surrender of Japan on 14 August 1945.

From Manchu to Japanese occupation, there were uprisings and opposition movement in Taiwan. As for Manchu, Taiwanese Han were fighting for the reinstate of the Ming rule, in line with the new direction in mainland China. The Tiandi Hui was strong and inspired by Taiping Rebellion, and the appeal by reformist and revolutionists. There was no Taiwan independence movement. As for opposition to Japanese rule, it had been uprising initially by military way, but it later developed into more civilian action to oppose the Japanese rule, and communists begin to penetrate the island. They voices for self rule become stronger. The opposition was to be in line with the mainland China, many Taiwanese participated in uprising in mainland China to overthrow Manchu. However after 1911 when Manchu was overthrow, the period of political chaos by warlords and later Japanese militarists followed, Taiwanese Hans also participate actively in the resistance to protect their ancestry land. They are strongly behind Dr Sun for revolution, and later against Japanese invasion of China.

However after 50 years of Japanese rule in Taiwan, there were significant number of Taiwanese, who had been culturally assimilated, were royal to Japan, and joined their arm forces during the WW2, including the ex-president Lee Teng Hui.

Dr Sun Yat-sen and Taiwan

In 1894, Dr Sun was in Tianjin, together with Lu Haodong(陸皓東, 1868-1895) to sent a petition to Li Hongzhang(李鸿章, 1823-1901), the Viceroy of Zhili and Minister of Beiyang. Li had no time to look at the petition, as First Sino Japanese War(1894 -1895) broke up. Beiyang fleets were defeated by the Japanese navy. Li Hongzhang was the one who signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki(下関条約) "in perpetuity". It is also known as Treaty of Maguan(马关条约). It was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing Empire of China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. The peace conference took place from March 20 to April 17, 1895.

At the peace conference between Imperial Japan and Qing Dynasty, Li Hongzhang and Li Jingfang(李經方,1855?-1934), the ambassadors at the negotiation desk of Qing Dynasty, originally did not plan to split Taiwan away from the Mainland because they also realised Taiwan’s great location for trading with the West. Therefore, even though Qing Dynasty had lost wars against Britain and France in the 19th century, Emperor of Qing was serious to keep Taiwan under its control. On 20th March 1895, at Sunpanro (春帆楼) in Shimonoseki in Japan, 1-month-long peace conference had started. Li stated about Taiwan that, ‘Taiwan is already independent enough, and impossible to give other country (台湾已立一行省、不能送給他国).

Before the treaty was signed, Li Hongzhang was attacked by a right-wing Japanese extremist on March 24 1895: he was fired at and wounded on his way back to his lodgings at Injoji temple. The public outcry aroused by the assassination attempt caused the Japanese to temper their demands and agree to a temporary armistice. The conference was temporarily adjourned and resumed on April 10 1895.

It was too late for China, as she has no political power to bargain with military strong Japan. The treaty was drafted with John W. Foster, former American Secretary of State, advising the Qing Dynasty. It was signed on 17th April 1895 by Count Ito Hirobumi and Viscount Mutsu Munemitsu for the Emperor of Japan and Li Hongzhang and Li Jingfang on behalf of the Emperor of China.

Article 1: China recognizes definitively the full and complete independence and autonomy of Korea, and, in consequence, the payment of tribute and the performance of ceremonies and formalities by Korea to China, that are in derogation of such independence and autonomy, shall wholly cease for the future.
Articles 2 & 3: China cedes to Japan in perpetuity and full sovereignty of the Penghu group, Taiwan and the eastern portion of the bay of Liaodong Peninsula together with all fortifications, arsenals and public property.
Article 4: China agrees to pay to Japan as a war indemnity the sum of 200,000,000 Kuping taels
Article 6: China opens Shashih, Chungking, Soochow and Hangchow to Japan. Moreover, China is to grant Japan most-favored-nation treatment.

It was an unfair treaty to China; Korea was taken away from China's sphere of influence and colonized by Japan, and Japan gained Penanghu & Taiwan in perpetuity. It was a peace treaty for China to end the war under pressure.

General Zuo Zongtang(左宗棠, 1812-1885), an equally famous but more respected Chinese military leader, accused Li Hongzhang of being a traitor, and predicted that Li will be hated for thousand years(“李鴻章誤盡蒼生,將落個千古罵名”). It was time Qing Empire need to reform or end.....uprisings followed...

The Hsing Chung Hui (兴中会), literally means the Revive China Society or the Society for Regenerating China, was founded in Honolulu, Republic of Hawaii, by Dr. Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities against Manchu. It was formed during the First Sino-Japanese War after a string of Chinese military defeats exposed Qing corruption and incompetence, and considered as national humiliation.

In spring 1895, the Hsing Chung Hui (兴中会), which was based in Hong Kong, planned the first Guangzhou Uprising. Lu Haodong was tasked with designing the revolutionaries' flag. On 26 October 1895, Yang Quyun(楊衢雲) and Sun Yat-sen led Zhen Shiliang(鄭士良, 1863-1901) and Lu Haodong(陸皓東) to Guangzhou, preparing to capture Guangzhou in one strike. However, the details of their plans were leaked to the government. The Qing Government began to arrest revolutionaries, including Lu Haodong, who was later executed. The first Guangzhou uprising was admittedly a failure. Sun Yat-sen and Yang Quyun were wanted by the Qing Government. Under the pressure from Qing Government, the government of Hong Kong forbade these two men to enter the territory for five years. Sun Yat-sen went into exile in Japan together with Chen Shao Bai(陳少白).

Chen Shao Bai went to Taiwan twice and established the Taipei branch of Hsing Chung Hui (兴中会)in Mid November 1897. He wins the support of Wu Wen-Siu (吳文秀), Chao Man-chao (趙滿朝) and Rong Qi-nien (容祺年), among others, and sets up a branch of the society in Taipei.

Dr Sun's visit to Taiwan
Between 1900 and 1918 Dr. Sun Yat-sen went to Taiwan three times. His first visit there was for the preparation for the Huichou Uprising(惠州起義). His last visit was in 1924, on the way to Beijing, North China via Keelung. All together, he visited Taiwan 4 times, this revealed that Taiwan is important in Dr Sun's mind .

1900 The first visit to Taiwan

In 1900, the Boxer Rebellion unfolded in China, and the north was in anarchy. The revolutionaries, therefore, decided to prepare for a military uprising. In June, Sun Yat-sen along with Zhen Sholiang, Chen Shaobai, Yang Quyun, and several Japanese people, such as Miyazaki Toten, Heiyama Shu, and Ryōhei Uchida, arrived in Hong Kong from Yokohama, but the British authorities refused to admit them. With the support of a Japanese organization Black Dragon Society(日本黑龍會), Sun Yat-sen went to Taiwan via Shimonoseki(馬關)on September 25,1900. He arrived at Keelong on 28-9-1900, then to Taipei. After meeting with Taiwan's Japanese governor Kodama Gentarō(兒玉源太郎,1898-02-26 to 1906-04-14), he gained the governor's promise that Japanese officers would support an uprising in Guangzhou. Kodama Gentaro, Japanese viceroy of Taiwan asked Goto Shimpei, the Japanese official in charge of civil affairs on the island, to contact Sun Yat-sen to offer help. As a result, Sun Yat-sen established a command center for the uprising at a place near today’s Changsha Street. More Taiwanese joined the movement.

Dr. Sun’s plan to direct the national revolution from Taiwan was frustrated as pro-Manchu cabinet came to power in Japan, Huang said, yet in his four visits to this island, Dr. Sun planted seeds of hope in the hearts of the Taiwanese people and tied together the anti-Japanese movement on Taiwan and the national revolutionary movement on the mainland

On October 8, Sun Yat-sen ordered Zhen Shiliang(鄭士良) and others to launch an uprising in Huizhou Sanzhoutian(惠州三洲田), also known as the Huizhou Uprising or Genji Uprising. The revolutionary army initially numbered 20,000 men, but the Japanese officers changed their minds and refused to support the revolution, despite the Japanese governor's promise. This uprising therefore also failed. Revolutionaries, such as Shi Jian and Yamada Ryusei, were killed as a result. Sun Yat-sen was deported from Taiwan back to Japan.

Growth of Tong menghui in Taiwan

In 1910, Wang Chao-pei(王兆培), a member of the Fujian branch of the Revolutionary Alliance, the successor organization to the Revive China Society, went to Taiwan to engage in organizational work. While studying at the Taipei Medical School, he secretly recruited Weng Chun-ming(翁俊明), Chiang Wei-shui(蔣渭水), Tu Tsung-ming(杜聰明) and others as alliance members. Weng served as liaison director in charge of developing the society’s chapter in Taiwan.

In the following year, the Revolutionary Alliance staged the 329 Guangzhou Uprising (the Huanghuagang Uprising). In Taiwan, Tainan’s Hsu Tsan-yuan(許贊元) and Miaoli’s Luo Fu-hsing(羅福星) also took part in the uprising. Later, members of Taiwan’s elites, such as Lien Heng (連橫) and Lai He (賴和), joined the alliance, which saw its Taiwanese membership grow to 76.

After Formation of Republic Of China in 1911

The success of the 1911 Xinhai Revolution and the consequent establishment of the Republic of China greatly encouraged people in Taiwan, sparking a surge of anti-Japanese sentiment. This was attested, for example, by the 1913 Miaoli Incident involving Luo Fu-hsing and the 1915 Tapani Incident, a large-scale uprising led by Yu Ching-fang(余清芳). Such activities were covertly supported by Lin Tsu-mi(林祖密), a member of an influential family in Taichung, who subsequently became a Sun “disciple” and joined in the work of the Constitutional Protection Movement in mainland China

1913 The 2nd Visit to Taiwan

1912- On August 25, 1912, the Kuomintang (國民黨)was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Beijing, where the Revolutionary Alliance(Tongmenhui) and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections. Sun, the then Premier of the ROC, was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing(1874-1916) as his deputy.

The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the KMT on a democratic socialist platform in favor of a constitutional parliamentary democracy. The party was opposed to constitutional monarchists and sought to check the power of Yuan. The Kuomintang won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly in December 1912.

The first parliamentary election in February 1913. , which then convened the National Assembly of the Republic of China for the first time on April 8. The Kuomintang won majority of the seats, and Song Jiaoren was designated to form the cabinet.

Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions and had parliamentary leader Song Jiaoren assassinated in Shanghai in 1913. Members of the KMT led by Sun Yat-sen staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, and failed.

After failing the Second Revolution, Dr. Sun Yat-sen, in the company of Mr. Hu Han-min(胡漢民, 1879-1936)and other revolutionary leaders, left Shanghai by German Vessel MS York(德国轮船约克号) on 2/8/1913. Arrived in Mawei(马尾), Fukien Province on 3rd August on his way from Shanghai to Kwangtung Province, planning to launch another offensive to overthrow Yuan Shih-kai. Upon learning of the changed situation in Kwangtung, he left Mawei for Keelung, Taipei on 4/8/1913 by Fushun Maru(抚顺丸) for a second visit, instead of proceeding to Canton.". He arrived at Taipei on 5-8-1913 with Hu Hanmin.

Dr. Sun Yat-sen stayed at the Hotel Umeyashaki(梅屋敷旅馆) operated by a Japanese individual in the then Omari Machi (at the intersection of the now Chung Shan North Road, Sec. 1 and Peiping West Street). During his stay there, he wrote two Chinese characters, "Po Ai (Universal Love)," for Sogo Daiwa, the owner of the hotel, and another two characters, "Tung Jen (Fellowman)," for Daiwa's younger brother, Goichiro Fujii, as souvenirs. Hotel Umeyashaki is now Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall. They only stayed in Taiwan for 10 hours, secretly met the early members of Tongmenhui. Dr Sun met Dr Weng Junming(翁俊明, 1893-1943)the first Taiwan member of Tongmenhui, Dr Jiang Weishui(蒋渭水, 1891-1931)popularly known as Taiwan's Sun Yat-sen, Luo Fuxing (罗福星, 1886-1914)who participated in Huanghuakang Uprising、and Liao Jinping(廖进平,1895-1947), who financially supported the uprisings.

Liao Chin-ping(廖進平) presented Dr Sun with a donation of 60,000 Japanese yen, and Sun reciprocated with a bottle of whiskey.

Dissatisfied with Yuan Shi-kai’s malfeasance, Weng Chun-ming, Tu Tsung-ming and other Alliance members slipped into Beijing intent upon exacting revenge by introducing deadly bacteria into Yuan’s water supply. Although the plot failed, it clearly evidenced the sympathy of Taiwan compatriots for the national revolution spearheaded by Sun.

Hwang Xing was also waiting for Shizuoka Maru to Singapore or USA.

Then Dr Sun took Japanese vessel Shinano Maru(信浓丸) on 5/8/1913 from Keelung to Mojiko(門司港), Japan. Arrived at Kobe on the 9th, and Tokyo on 18th.

Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the Kuomintang from the parliament. Yuan dissolved the KMT in November (whose members had largely fled into exile in Japan) and dismissed the parliament early in 1914.

Dr. Sun’s plan to direct the national revolution from Taiwan was frustrated as pro-Manchu cabinet came to power in Japan. Sun Yat-sen was back in Japan and would not see China again until after the death of Yuan in 1916

1918 The 3rd Visit to Taiwan

On July 1917, Sun Yat-sen arrived in Guangzhou from Shanghai, and telegram the original members of parliament in Peking to come to Guangzhou and re-established a new government. The Naval Minister Cheng Biguang(程璧光,1861-1918)conducted nine ships to support Sun Yat-sen and arrived Guangzhou on July 22.

On August 25, around 100 original members of parliament convened a conference in Guangzhou and passed the resolution on establishing a military government in Guangzhou to protect the Provisional Constitution. The military government consisted of a generalissimo and three field marshals to exercise the administrative rights of the Republic of China.

On September 1, 91 members in the Guangzhou parliament voted, and 84 of them voted Sun Yat-sen as the generalissimo. Then they selected the leaders of the National Protection War (护国战争/護國戰爭,1915-1916)or anti-Monarchy War, Tang Jiyao(唐继尧/唐繼堯) of the Yunnan clique and Lu Rongting(陆荣廷, 1856-1927) of the Old Guangxi clique as marshals, Wu Tingfang(伍廷芳, 1842-1922)as the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Tang Shaoyi(唐紹儀, 1862-1938) as the Minister of Finance (abstained), Cheng Biguang(程璧光) as the Naval Minister, and Hu Hanmin as the Minister of Communications. Sun Yat-sen inaugurated on September 10, and appointed Li Liejun (李烈钧)as the Chief of Staff, Li Fulin(李福林) as the Commander of the Guards, Xu Chongzhi(許崇智, 1887 - 1965)as staff officer and Chen Jiongming(陳炯明) as the Commander of the First Army.

After the establishment of the Guangzhou Military Government, the north and the south of China were in confrontation. Among the supporters of Guangzhou Government, the militants in Guangxi and Yunnan were superior in strength. Hunan's Tan Yanxi(譚延闓,1880-1930), Zhao Tihuan and Cheng Chieng also supporting the Constitutional Protection Movement. With the support of Lu Rongting(陆荣廷)and the Guangxi Army, the Constitutional Protection Army defeated Duan Qirui(段祺瑞)'s assault in November. Duan resigned as the North's prime minister as a result, leaving the post to Feng Guozhang(馮國璋, 1859-1919). The north and the south were in a temporary armistice.

The Constitutional Protection Movement(护法运动, 1917-1922) launched by the Military Government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou on September 10, 1917, was intended to "protect" this provisional constitution.

During 1918, Cheng Biguang turned his position toward Guangxi clique, and he was assassinated. The Extraordinary Session of Parliament was controlled by the Old Guangxi clique(舊桂系), and was restructured on May 1918 in which the generalissimo was replaced by a committee of seven executives consisting of Sun, Tang Shaoyi, Wu Tingfang, and Tang Jiyao on one side and Lu Rongting, Cen Chunxuan(岑春煊), and Lin Baoyi(林葆怿, 1863-1927) on the other.

Feeling marginalized, Sun Yat-sen resigned as the generalissimo, and left Guangzhou to Shanghai. The Guangzhou Military Government is now headed by the Cen Chunxuan(岑春煊), the chief executive. Wu Tingfang's election as Guangdong's governor was nullified by Lu Rongting.

ON 1/6/1918, from Guangzhou by Suzhou Maru(苏州丸) to Swatow with Hu Han-min(胡漢民)、Tai Chi-tao(戴季陶,1891-1949)then by Amakusa Maru(天草丸)to Keelung and arrived Taipei the next day on 7th June. The Japanese authority in Taiwan did not allow him to land at Taiwan, but allowed supporters and members to meet him on board the ship. Dr Sun only stay one night at the port. He left again after one hour with Shinano Maru to Kobe, Japan.

1924 The 4th visit

Puyi, the last emperor was expelled from the Forbidden City in Beijing in 1924 by warlord Feng Yuxiang. Feng Yuxiang , popularly known as Christian General, who even named his army, Nationalist Army. General Feng invited Dr Sun to Beijing.

On November 10, 1924, Sun traveled north to Tianjin and delivered a speech to suggest a gathering for a "National conference" for the Chinese people. It called for the end of warlord rules and the abolition of all unequal treaties with the Western powers. Two days later, he traveled to Beijing to discuss the future of the country, despite his deteriorating health and the ongoing civil war of the warlords.

Dr Sun visited Keelung on 13-11-1924, his way to North China, Beijing. The visit was brief and may be just a stop on the way to Kobe, Japan, without landing in Taiwan.

On November 28, 1924 Sun traveled to Japan and gave a speech on Pan-Asianism at Kobe, Japan.

This was the last trip to Taiwan. He passed away in 1925 at Beijing due to liver cancer. Sun died on March 12, 1925 at the age of 58 at the Rockefeller Hospital in Beijing.

Keenly aware of the suffering his Taiwan brethren under Japanese colonization, on his deathbed Sun repeatedly reminded his comrade Tai Chi-tao(戴季陶) that until Taiwan had been restored to China, three demands should be made upon Japan, the most important of which was to grant Taiwan and Korea self-governance and free the people of Taiwan. In Dr Sun's mind while he was sick, he still remember the unification of Taiwan with China.

Dr. Sun Yat-sen dies in Beijing. Taiwanese students Hong Yan-chiu (洪炎秋, 1899-1980), Ye Xian-yu (蘇薌雨, 1902-1986) and other student representatives deliver an elegy to Dr. Sun Yat-sen: “Who can lead the three million Taiwanese people now that they have lost a great man? Our generation will carry on the uncompleted work of our motherland” (三百萬臺灣剛醒同胞唯先生何人領導,四十年祖國未竟事業舍我輩其誰分擔).

Chiang Wei-shui(蔣渭水)and Lin Hsien-tang(林獻堂) joined with other Taiwanese to establish the Taiwanese Cultural Association(台灣文化協會)on 17-10-1921,which was founded by Chiang Wei-shui in Dadaocheng, Taipei, and the Taiwan People’s Party(臺灣民眾黨), Taiwan's first political party on 10-7-1927, continue Dr Sun Yat-sen’s call for the recovery of Taiwan. Ironically many of the early Taiwan political activists were doctors, like Dr Sun.

The rule by Japanese occupation and acculturation in 50 years of their occupation, developed a group of Japanese friendly community, who are willing to accept Japanese culture, even changed their names. After 1915, armed resistance against the Japanese colonial government nearly ceased. Instead, spontaneous social movements became popular. The Taiwanese people organized various modern political, cultural and social clubs, adopting political consciousness with clear intentions to unite people with sympathetic sensibilities.

The formal surrender occurred on the morning of October 25, 1945 in Taipei City Hall (modern Zhongshan Hall). The Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan formally surrendered to Chen Yi representing the Commander in Chief of the Chinese Theatre. On the same day, the Office of the Chief Executive began functioning from the building which now houses the ROC Executive Yuan. The occupation was finally over, but many still remember fondly of Japanese Occupation era. This is the group who are strongest supporter in Taiwan independence.

The entry of General Chiang Kai-sheh and their forces, created political pressure to the locals, especially after 228 incident, where 20,000 t0 30,000 civilian were killed, many local intellectuals and politician. The political resentment and anger developed towards the KMT military government, but have no power to voice and act. The pressure suddenly released when democracy opened the doors....the main root cause for independence from KMT rule, and later Taiwan independence.

This was the dilemma of Taiwan, they suddenly lost their identification,and forgot Dr Sun, and their ancestry roots.......may be the culture of their ancestry land is not progressive enough for a modern Taiwan. A political move for independence from their ancestry land....a political and cultural dichotomy in Taiwan....politically and culturally, China was divided....

Taiwan was marginalized historically and politically by Manchu, even KMT and Communists. They did not see the Taiwan island when compared it with the large mainland. To the politician, the small island is insignificant, and looked lightly at the territorial and political issue of the island. This was great mistake by Manchu, KMT in the past. This weaken Chinese bargaining power in international border dispute, and it created opportunity for the global opportunists to manipulate on the problem. USA even milked out the cash from the economically strong Taiwan for their arms deals. The discovery of oil fields in the South China Sea will see more political movement in the region, and complicated the strait relationship of mainland China and Taiwan.

When you see India, Philippines, Vietnam, Japan and USA suddenly gear up their military and political activities in the region, it is sign for worry .....for Taiwan and mainland China....and can they forget about Dr Sun Yat-sen and unification? .....Strait relationship after 100 years of Xinhai Revolution is now facing tough challenge....

Suggested readings:
1. 913年8月5日孫逸仙與胡漢民搭乘「撫順丸」從馬尾抵達基隆下榻台北御成町「梅屋敷」旅館,

No comments:

Post a Comment