Monday, October 10, 2011

Death of Dr Sun Yat-sen

Journey to Beijing

On 5-11-1924, the last emperor Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City in Beijing by warlord Feng Yuxiang(冯玉祥/馮玉祥, 1882-1948), the Christian General. Feng imprisoned Zhili-leader and 3rd president Cao Kun(曹錕) of Republic of China, During a war against Zhang Zuolin(张作霖) in October 1924, Cao was betrayed and imprisoned by his General Feng Yuxiang in the Beijing coup. Feng occupied Beijing and forced Cao to resign. His brother, Cao Rui (曹叡), committed suicide while under house arrest. Cao Kun was released two years later as a goodwill gesture by Feng to Wu Peifu(吴佩孚) or "Jade Marshall" (玉帥).

He installed the more liberal Huang Fu(黃郛,1883-1936), evicted the Last Emperor from the Forbidden City, and invited Sun Yat-sen to Beijing to resurrect the Republican government and reunify the country.

Following his expulsion from the Forbidden City, Puyi spent a few days at the house of his father 2nd Prince Chun, and then temporarily resided in the Japanese embassy for a year and a half. In 1925, he moved to the "Quiet Garden Villa" in the Japanese Concession in Tianjin.

While Puiyi was expelled from Forbidden City, and resided at Japanese embassy at Tianjin, Dr Sun Yat-sen was giving a speech at Tianjin. I do not know did they ever met? even at the cross point of their life at Tianjin.....

1924- On November 10, 1924, Sun traveled north to Tianjin and delivered a speech to suggest a gathering for a "National conference" for the Chinese people. It called for the end of warlord rules and the abolition of all unequal treaties with the Western powers. Two days later, he traveled to Beijing to discuss the future of the country, despite his deteriorating health and the ongoing civil war of the warlords.

On November 28, 1924 Sun traveled to Japan and gave a speech on Pan-Asianism at Kobe, Japan.

1925- Sun came to Beijing, despite illness and died of liver cancer on March 12, 1925 at the age of 58. He died at the Rockefeller Hospital in Beijing. In keeping with common Chinese practice, his remains were placed in the Green Cloud Monastery, a Buddhist shrine in the Western Hills a few miles outside of Beijing.

On April 23, 1929, the Chinese government appointed He Yingqin(何应钦/何應欽, 1890-1987) to be in charge of laying Dr. Sun to rest. On May 26, the coffin departed from Beijing, and on May 28, it arrived in Nanjing. On June 1, 1929, Dr. Sun was buried at Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum (中山陵), Nanjing.

Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum (中山陵) is situated at the foot of the second peak of Mount Zijin (Purple Mountain) in Nanjing, China. Construction of the tomb started in January 1926 and was finished in spring of 1929. The architect was Lu Yanzhi(呂彥直, 1894-1929), who died shortly after it was finished. Lu died at the age of 35, relative young age.

After Sun’s death

Warlordism did not end after Dr Sun's death, but took on a different appearance. All cliques now wore the Zhongshan suit and had party membership, effectively becoming KMT franchisees. Tang Jiyao, claiming to be Sun's chosen successor, tried to seize control of the southern government during the Yunnan-Guangxi War but was routed. In the north the Anti–Fengtian War was waged from November 1925 to April 1926 by the Guominjun against the Fengtian clique and their Zhili clique allies. The war ended with the defeat of the Guominjun and the end of the provisional executive government.

After Dr Sun's death, Hu Hanmin(胡漢民/胡汉民, 1879-1936) was one of the three most powerful figures in Kuomintang, as vice generalissimo,he become acting generalissimo when Dr Sun Yat-sen left Guangzhou to Shaoguan(韶关)in Sept 1924, and chairman of Chinese Kuomintang Central Political Committee(中国国民党中央政治委员会/中央政治会议/中政会), the top decision body of ruling KMT(國民黨). He was a very important right-winger in Kuomintang. The other two were Wang Jingwei(汪兆銘,汪精衛, 1883-1944) and Liao Zhongkai(廖仲恺/廖仲愷, 1877-1925) who were left wingers, who were close with the Soviet Union as well as the Chinese Communist Party. Liao Zhongkai was the finance minister under Dr Sun.

National Government of the ROC,Guangdong(中華民國國民政府)1/7/1925 to 20/5/1948

After the death of Dr Sun, for the unification of modern China and to start the Northern Expedition(北伐) against the Beiyang government in Beijing. Chinese Kuomintang Central Political Committee(中国国民党中央政治委员会) decided to form a national government at Guangdong on 1-7-1925. National Military Council(國民政府軍事委員會) was also formed at the same time to command the Chinese National Revolutionary Army(國民革命軍) for Northern Expedition. Wang jingwei, Tan Yankai(譚延闓) and Chiang Kai-shek(蔣介石) were in the committee of National Militry Council, with Wang as chairman. This new government replaced the Military government in Guangzhou (1921-1925) set up by Dr Sun.

Wang jingwei(汪兆銘) was elected as the first chairman of the National Government of the ROC,Guangdong(第一任國民政府主席) from 1/7/1925 to 23/3/1926. He was also the 1st chairman of newly formed National Military Council(國民政府軍事委員會).

Liao Zhongkai(廖仲恺) was assassinated before a Kuomintang Executive Committee meeting on August 30, 1925 in Guangzhou, Guangdong when five gunmen riddled him with bullets from Mauser C96's as he stepped out of his limo, and Hu Hanmin was suspected and arrested. This left only Wang Jingwei and the rising Chiang Kai-shek as rivals for control of the Kuomintang. At the time, Chiang Kai-shek was a much junior party leader, but he had a strong political ambition. Wang Jingwei was not a political ambitious man at the time. The event effectively remove two competitors from the obstacles to political ambition of Chiang.

Wang was elected as Chairman of Chinese Kuomintang Central Political Committee on 23-1-1926, replacing Hu Han-min. Wang should theoretically be the most powerful man at this time in modern China, but he lacked military power base despite having appointed as chairman of National Military Council. This also start the political rivalry of Wang and Chiang, Chiang was active in his pursuit of political ambition, Wang was a reactive and passive player. Between the death of Dr Sun and the end of Resistance War, it was the period of Chiang and Wang.

A power struggle between his young protégé Chiang Kai-shek and his old revolutionary comrade Wang Jingwei split the KMT. At stake in this struggle was the right to lay claim to Sun's ambiguous legacy. Chiang's relatively low position in the party's internal hierarchy was bolstered by his military backing and adept political maneuvering following the Zhongshan Warship Incident. On June 5, 1926, Chiang became Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA),and on July 27 1926 he launched a military campaign known as the Northern Expedition in order to defeat the warlords controlling northern China and to unify the country under the KMT.

Wang had clearly lost control of the KMT by 1926, when, following the Zhongshan Warship Incident(中山舰事件), or "March 20th Incident", on March 20, 1926, involved a suspected plot by Captain Li Zhilong of the warship Chung Shan to kidnap Chiang Kai-shek. After the incident, Chiang successfully sent Wang and his family to vacation in Europe. It was important for Chiang to have Wang away from Guangdong while Chiang was in the process of expelling communists from the KMT because Jiang was then the leader of the left wing of the KMT, notably sympathetic to communists and communism, and may have opposed Chiang if he had remained in China. Wang resigned on 23-3-1926 as Chairman, and left Guangzhou to Europe on 11-5-1926.

It triggered a political struggle between the Communist Party of China and Kuomintang(KMT). The civil war began in April 1927, amidst the Northern Expedition. During the 1920s, Communist Party of China activists retreated underground or to the countryside where they fomented a military revolt, beginning the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927. This marked the beginning of the ten year's struggle, known in mainland China as the "Ten Year's Civil War" (十年内战). It lasted until the Xi'an Incident when Chiang Kai-shek was forced to form the Second United Front against the invading Japanese and essentially ended when major active battles ceased in 1949-1950.

After Wang resigned, Chiang becoming the head of the Kuomintang party and commander-in-chief of all the armies for the Northern Expedition.

Tan Yankai(譚延闓) was the acting Chairman of the National Government of the ROC after Wang left, acting Chairman of National Government of ROC, Guangdong(代理國民政府主席) from 30/3/1926 to 20/3/1927). The office later moved to Wuhan(武漢).

On June 5, 1926, Chiang became Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA), and on July 27 he launched a military campaign known as the Northern Expedition(北伐)in order to defeat the warlords controlling northern China and to unify the country under the KMT. The NRA branched into three divisions: to the west was Wang Jingwei and its allies, who led a column to take Wuhan; Bai Chongxi(白崇禧, 1893-1966) went east to take Shanghai; Chiang himself led in the middle route, planning to take Nanjing before pressing ahead to capture Beijing.

National Government at Wuhan(武漢)1926-1927

On 8-11-1926, the National Government of ROC, Guangdong, declared that the capital was moving to Wuhan, and by 5th December, all government offices stopped operating in Guangzhou, by 21-2-1927, the government officially operated in Wuhan. During the period between the moving of the government from Guangzhou and Wuhan from 5/12/1926 to 20/2/1927,Chinese Kuomintang Central Executive Committee(中國國民黨中央執行委員) and National Government Temporary Combined Committee Meeting(國民政府委員臨時聯席會議) as temporary administration institution, Xu Qian(徐謙) was the President of Combined Meeting(聯席會議主席)。

From 21-2-1927 to 19-8-1927, the Wuhan government did not appoint any chairman, the government was ruled by the committee of Wang Jin-wei(汪精衛)、Tan Yankai(譚延闓) 、Sun Ke(孫科)、Xu Qian(徐謙)、Tse-ven Soong or TV Soong(宋子文)as standing committee. Wang Jing-wei was the chairman of the standing committee on 10-3-1927 in his absence. This Wuhan government ruled until Ninghan Reunion(寧漢合流) where Wuhan and Nanjing government reunited.

When Chiang was having power control in KMT, he started the Northern Expedition. But in view of his dictatorship, the KMT members asked Wang to return from Europe. Chiang has no choice, but accepted the return of Wang. Wang returned by train from Russia to China in Feb 1927, in Russia he met Stalin. He arrived at Shanghai on 1-4-1927, returned to Wuhan on 6/4 and on 10/4/1927 officially took over as chairman of the Standing Committee, National Government of ROC, Wuhan (武漢國民政府常務委員會主席)from 10/4/1927 to 20/9/1927. On 5-4-1927, KMT-CCP Joint Declaration (國共兩黨領袖汪兆銘、陳獨秀聯合宣言) was issued by Chen Duxiu(陳獨秀), Secretary General of the Communist Party of China and Wang Jin-wei. He was against Chiang’s suggestion of anti Communist(排共建議),and suggested cooperation with communist(堅持容共). Allied with Chinese Communists and advised by Soviet agent Mikhail Borodin, Wang declared the National Government as having moved to Wuhan. While attempting to direct the government from Wuhan, Wang was notable for his close collaboration with leading Communist figures, including Mao Zedong, Chen Duxiu, and Borodin, and for his faction's provocative land-reform policies.

"Ninghan Separation" (宁汉分裂/寧漢分裂)18/4/1927 to 19/8/1927
(i) 南京(1927年4月18日—1937年11月20日)

Chiang Kai-shek occupied Shanghai in April 1927. Wang's regime was opposed by Chiang Kai-shek, who was in the midst of a bloody purge of Communists in Shanghai on 12/4/1927 or 412 Incident, was calling for a push farther north. Wang was against the bloody suppression of suspected Communists known as the "White Terror". The KMT was now plagued by factionalism between Wang Jingwei and Chiang Kai Shek. Chiang formed a new alternative KMT government in Nanjing(南京國民政府) on 18-4-1927. The separation between the governments of Wang(Wuhan) and Chiang(Nanjing)are known historically as the "Ninghan Separation" (宁汉分裂/寧漢分裂).

During the period from 18-4-1927 to 19-8-1927, there was no appointment of Chairman at Nanjing, but Hu Hanmin supported Chiang and was appointed as Chairman of Central Executive Committee of Kuomintang (Nanjing) from 1927-1931. (南京國民政府採取委員制,由蔣中正、胡漢民、張靜江、吳稚暉、鈕永建等十二人為政府委員,由中政會主席胡漢民主持國民政府,鈕永建為國民政府秘書長,蔣中正為國民革命軍總司令,吳稚暉為總司令部政治部主任。政府轄區包括滬、蘇、浙、閩、兩廣與皖之一部等.)

(ii) Ninghan Reunion(寧漢復合)16/9/1927 to 7/2/1928

Within several weeks of Chiang's suppression of Communists in Shanghai Wang's leftist government was attacked by a KMT-aligned warlord and disintegrated, leaving Chiang as the sole legitimate leader of the Republic. KMT troops occupying territories formerly controlled by Wang conducted massacres of suspected Communists in those areas: around Changsha alone, over ten thousand people were killed in a single twenty day period. Fearing retribution as a Communist sympathizer, Wang publicly claimed allegiance to Chiang and fled to Europe. Wang requested Chiang to resign as Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, as condition for reunion of the government.

On 14/8/1927, Chiang resigned ( 蔣中正下野),as Nanjing and Wuhan reunited(寧漢合流), the government of "ninghan reunion(寧漢復合政府)" on 19/8/1927 moved to Nanjing(遷往南京). Wang Jingwei arrived at Nanjing on Sept (汪兆銘亦於9月初親抵南京) and Ninghan officially reunited(寧漢正式復合),是为“寧漢復合(中國共產黨稱作寧漢合流)”, there was no appointment of Chairman temporary during the period(後暫不設主席期間). The period last from 16/9/1927 to 7/2/1928 without any appointment of chairman for Nanjing government(united government).

The Northern Expedition 1926-1928
The Northern Expedition also known as Northern March began from the KMT's power base in Guangdong province on 9-7-1926, and ended on 29-12-1928, when On June 4, 1928, Zhang, who was heading north from Beijing by train, was assassinated by Japanese conspirators, operating from Japan's Kwantung Army. Yan Xishan(閻錫山/阎锡山)'s forces occupied Beijing and the city was renamed "Beiping" or "Northern Peace". Yan's occupation of Beijing in June, 1928, brought the Northern Expedition to a successful conclusion. Yan's occupation of Beijing in June, 1928, brought the Northern Expedition to a successful conclusion. Yan's assistance to Chiang was rewarded shortly afterwards by his being named Minister of the Interior and deputy commander-in-chief of all Kuomintang armies. Zhang's son, Zhang Xueliang, took over control of Manchuria and decided to cooperate with Chiang and the Kuomintang by replacing all banners of the Beiyang Government in Manchuria to the flag of the Nationalist Government on 29/12/1928, the incident was called North-east Flag Change(東北易幟), thus nominally uniting China under one state, due to his desire to drive out Japanese influence over Manchuria.

National Government, Nanjing(南京國民政府)1927-1948

Tan Yankai(譚延闓)was later appointed as 2nd chairman of the National Government of ROC(第二任國民政府主席)from 7/2/1928 - 10/10/1928年10月10日,also the first President of the National Government, Nanjing(南京國民政府第一任), a united government.

When The National Revolutionary Army (NRA,國民革命軍) entered Beijing in 8th June 1928, which reflected the success of Northern Expedition, a personal political accomplishment for Chiang. Chiang Kai-shek was appointed as 3rd chairman of the National Government of ROC(國民政府委員會主席第三任) and 2nd President of the National Government of ROC, Nanjing(南京國民政府第二任)(首次)from 10-10-1928 to 15-12-1931,along with heads of the five branches of government (五院院長).

On 29/12/1928, Manchuria under Northeast Flag Replacement(東北易幟),The Northern Expedition completed(北伐完成),and China was united(全國統一).

The Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek established control over much of China by 1928. According to Dr Sun's view, military regime should be over, and China should be entering the era of Tutelage Period(训政时期). Tutelage Period was the transition period before a full representative democracy fully implement under new constitution. Hu Han-min was in the opinion, that there was no necessity to have new constitution now. But Wang Jingwei, Yan Xishan(阎锡山),Feng Yuxiang(冯玉祥)met at Beijing, insisted on having new constitution and they drafted the new constitution in opposition to Nanjing government, the drafted constitution was historically known as Taiyuan Constitution(太原約法). The Nationalist Government promulgated the Provisional Constitution of the Political Tutelage Period(中华民国训政时期约法)on 8-5-1931, effective from 1st June. Under this document, the government operated under a one-party system with supreme power held by the National Congress of the Kuomintang and effective power held by the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang. This was the constitution crisis, another personal clash between Chiang and Wang.

Central Plain War(中原大战, May 1930 – November 4, 1930)
Between 1929 and 1930, Wang collaborated with Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan to form a central government in opposition to the one headed by Chiang. Wang took part in a conference hosted by Yan to draft a new constitution, and was to serve as the Prime Minister under Yan, who would be President. Wang's attempts to aid Yan's government ended when Chiang defeated the alliance in the Central Plains War. Central Plains War (中原大战, May 1930 – November 4, 1930 ) was the largest civil war within the factionalised Kuomintang (KMT) that broke out in 1930. It was fought between the forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the coalition of three military commanders who had previously allied with Chiang: Yan Xishan(閻錫山), Feng Yuxiang(馮玉祥), and Li Zongren(李宗仁), Zhang Fakui(張發奎). The war spread wide across Central Plains, a core region of China. Chiang victory, Yan and Feng resigned. Chiang becomes more powerful, and a strong man in modern China. The war however weaken China and KMT in later events against Japanese and Communist.

Lin Sen(林森) was acting Chairman from 15/12/1931 to 1/1/1932, and later appointed as 4th chairman of the National Government of ROC(國民政府主席第四任) and 3rd President of the National Government of ROC, Nanjing(南京國民政府第三任)from 15/12/1931 to 1/8/1943. He was actually a nominal appointment, the Chairman post from 1931 after 6th constitution change, has no power of actual government administration. The actual political power was under General Chiang Kai-sheh, who was the Chairman of National Military Council(國民政府軍事委員會, 1-7-1925 to 31-5-1946) from January 17, 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.

The National Government passes the Constitutional Draft of the Republic of China, called the “May 5th Constitutional Draft” (五五憲草)on 5-5-1936.

Hu Huimin died on May 12, 1936. His death sparked a crisis. Chiang wanted to replace Hu with loyal followers in southern China and end the autonomy the south enjoyed under Hu. As a result Chen and the New Guangxi clique conspired to remove Chiang from office. In the so-called "Liangguang Incident", Chen was forced to resign as governor of Guangdong after Chiang bribed many of Chen's officers to defect and the conspiracy collapsed.

On 12-12-1936,in Xian, Chiang Kai-shek is abducted and held by Marshal Chang Hsue-liang (張學良) and Yang Hu-cheng (楊虎城) until the 25th, when he is released. This event later becomes known as the Xian Incident.

Wang Jing-wei had Changed

In 1931, Wang joined another anti-Chiang government in Guangzhou. After Chiang defeated this regime, Wang reconciled with Chiang's Nanjing government and held prominent posts for most of the decade. Wang was appointed premier just as the Battle of Shanghai (1932) began. He had frequent disputes with Chiang and would resign in protest several times only to have his resignation rescinded. As a result of these power struggles within the KMT, Wang was forced to spend much of his time in exile. He traveled to Germany, and maintained some contact with Adolf Hitler. The effectiveness of the KMT was constantly hindered by leadership and personal struggles, such as that between Wang and Chiang. In December 1935, Wang permanently left the premiership after being seriously wounded during an assassination attempt a month earlier on 1-11-1935.

The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945) was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union (1937–1940) and the United States. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (1941), the war merged into the greater conflict of World War II as a major front of what is broadly known as the Pacific War. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It also made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War if the 1937–1941 period is taken into account.the war is most commonly known as the War of Resistance Against Japan (抗日战争).

7-7-1937- In a Beijing suburb, the Japanese army, looking to provoke confrontation, bombards Wanping County from the Marco Polo Bridge. The Japanese then attempt to take the town. The National Army of the Republic of China puts up fierce resistance, and the first fighting in the War of Resistance Against Japan is initiated. This event is later known as the “July 7th Incident” (七七事變).

During the period of 21/11/1937 to 5/5/1946, during the Resistance War, the capital of the National Government moved to Chongqing(重慶), historically it was known as Chongqing National Government(重慶國民政府). After the war was over, the capital of the government moved back to Nanjing on 5-5-1946.

29-3-1938- In Wuchang, the Kuomintang convenes an emergency National Congress. Guidelines on fighting the War of Resistance and national reconstruction are formulated. Chiang Kai-shek is elected Director-General of the Kuomintang, and Wang Qing-wei (汪精衛) Deputy Director-General of the Kuomintang.

1940 - During this time,Wang Jingwei with the Japanese Imperial Army, formed the puppet government, Japanese called it Nanjing National Government, but historically it was Wang Jingwei regime(汪精衛政權, 1940-1945). Wang Jingwei was originally the leftist leader of a Kuomintang (KMT) faction called the Reorganizationists who had broken away from Chiang Kai-Shek's government in March 1940 and defected to the Japanese invaders. Wang from a patriotic Dr Sun's supporter becomes a traitor, is it because of the personal rivalry between him and Chiang that caused the drastic change, that upgraded into national political conflict?...what caused the change?....

1941- on 10th Feb 1941, the Revolutionary Alliance Conference of Taiwan (台灣革命同盟會) is set up in Chongqing, under the direction of the Kuomintang. Its guiding purpose is to focus all of Taiwan’s revolutionary power to topple Japanese imperialism; restore Taiwan to glory; and unite in effort with the motherland to establish a new China based on the Three Principles of the People.

On 9-12-1941, The Republic of China officially declares war on the Axis powers of Japan, Germany and Italy, following the start of the Pacific War.

General Chiang Kai Sheh Era from 1-6-1943 to 20-5-1948

When Lin Sen was sick, General Chiang Kai-sheh was relieving from 1-6-1943 to 1-8-1943. Chairman of the National Government Lin Sen (林森) died on 1-8-1943. He was then acting from 1-8-1943 to 10-10-1943. From 10-10- 1943 to May 20, 1948, he was elected as 5th chairman of the National Government of ROC(國民政府委員會主席,第五任) and 4th President of the National Government of ROC, Nanjing(南京國民政府第四任)(二次). In 1943, the constitution changed again to gove actual government administration power to the Chairman(主席). General Chiang Kai-sheh was the one now holding actual political power as well as military power, the man who actually ruled the united modern China, the strong man of China.

Japan surrendered on 14-8-1945.

Republic of China(1948-1949 in mainland, after 1949 in Taiwan)

When the ROC moved the capital back to Nanjing, and the Second Sino-Japanese War was over, but the Chinese Civil War anticipated. The political climate pressured Chiang Kai-shek into enacting a democratic Constitution that would put an end to KMT single party rule. The Chinese Communists sought a coalition, made of one-third Nationalists, one-third Communists, and one-third of members from other parties, to form a coalition government that would draft the new Constitution. However, Chiang Kai-shek refused to relinquish power and insisted on having the Nationalist Government draft the Constitution and then holding nation-wide elections in which the Communists would be permitted to participate.KMT-drafted Constitution was adopted by the National Assembly on December 25, 1946, promulgated by the National Government on January 1, 1947, and went into effect on December 25, 1947. The Constitution was seen as the third and final stage of Kuomintang reconstruction of China. This time the 2nd constitution crisis was between Chiang and Communists.

There after that, ROC government replaced National Government(中華民國政府取代國民政府). General Chiang become the first President(總統)of ROC or Republic of China(中華民國), and continued from 1/3/1950 to 5/4/1975. He was however chased away from mainland China when communist took over in 1949. Chiang remained as President in Taiwan until the day he died in 1975.

The Communists, though invited to the convention that drafted it, boycotted and declared after the ratification that not only would it not recognize the ROC constitution, but all bills passed by the Nationalist administration would be disregarded as well. Zhou Enlai challenged the legitimacy of the National Assembly in 1947 by accusing KMT hand-picked the members of the National Assembly 10 years earlier and thus could not have legal representative of the Chinese people.

The history revealed that before Dr Sun's death, there were warlords, and after his death, there was KMT splits between Wang Jingwei and Chiang Kai-sheh, and Chinese civil war between KMT and CCP started, and Japanese invasion. It was a history of divided nation, chaos, and wars. The democracy and constitutional government were facing obstacles after obstacles, movement to republican was further delay, and slow down. Military rule under one party(KMT)or under communist rule were the norm. There was no unity, and China continue divided until today.

Will it be a different scenario, when Hu Han-min,Liao Zhongkai, and Wang Jing-wei are united like in the days of Tongmenhui?... the ambitious dictator opportunist General Chiang Kai-sheh will be contained, and Wang Jing-wei will not become a traitor..... Too many heads spoiled the soup, and failed Dr Sun Yat-sen dream journey to republic....




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